improving the efficiency of the parliamentary system and MacDonald’s 1929–31 government tried to introduce a form of proportional representation (the alternative vote) for general elections.9 Although Labour briefly advocated abolishing the Lords, during the 1930s, the leadership maintained its broad acceptance of the political order. In relation to the alternatives then offered by Communism and Fascism, Westminster did not appear too bad. In addition, Labour became an enthusiast for the state ownership of much of the economy and subjecting what remained in private hands

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1
Open Access (free)

entanglement with the German armaments industry with the sanitised picture of American involvement in the Second World War offered by the US media, and indeed by Hollywood. Brief visual reference is made in the footage to Steven Spielberg’s Saving Private Ryan (1998), as well as books by Stephen Ambrose and Tom Brokaw –​all of which, argued Stone, celebrated the military contribution of the USA while overlooking both the willingness of US industrialists to do business with the Third Reich, and the overwhelming contribution of the Russian people to the defeat of fascism in

in The cinema of Oliver Stone
Open Access (free)
The oddity of democracy

, everyone would laugh, the prime minister was disconcerted but no more. George Orwell was equally optimistic when he predicted that fascism with goose-stepping militia could never succeed in Britain, ‘because the people in the street would laugh.’ 42 If Humphrys and Orwell were right, it was a real check, but laughter has a short memory. Even open societies limit speech by laws of libel and slander, but there is a frontier here which the smugglers of political information can sometimes cross to the advantage of citizens. Satire can enable things to be

in Cultivating political and public identity
Order and security in post-Cold War Europe

humankind toward modernity, namely the institutions of liberal democracy and capitalism, in that it was difficult at the time to discern a viable alternative type of civilisation that people wanted to live in after the demise of communism, monarchy, fascism and the like. Such views were opposed by Huntington who, by dismissing the idea of a single global system (or of world-wide progress toward it), pointed out that the world was mired in a ‘clash of civilisations’, with several major groups, defined in cultural terms, constituting the new fractures of world conflict.50

in Theory and reform in the European Union

see in Chapter 8, for example, similar ideas to those of the Romantics are mobilised to very different ends by Nietzsche. Similarly, the debates about the function of art in the face of fascism, which led Walter Benjamin to adopt reductive views for reasons of political responsibility in the later 1930s, make it clear that these issues are primarily to do with how the real cultural world functions in relation to the challenges of modernity. At some point the ‘infinite reflection’ in the work of art has to be seen in relation to real people who engage with that work

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
Open Access (free)

what work one did has already been shown. In all sorts of lesser ways, too, the imperatives of the war economy, translated into government orders and regulations, cramped the lives of the citizens as they lived through these years along ‘the tunnel’ to victory. After three and a half years of them the journalist E. H. M. Relton ruefully observed: ‘Restrictions, discomforts, official supervision that smacks of Fascism – these we suffer but do not enjoy. Nor do we discuss them. But they are felt.’41 Every December from the beginning of the war, Mass-Observation asked

in Half the battle
Open Access (free)

, culminating in the formal entry of the USA into the war in December. At that point Vicky came up with a resonant echo of David Low’s famous May 1940 cartoon of the members of Churchill’s newly formed coalition government, marching shoulder to shoulder, rolling up their sleeves for action. Here, the coalition of united and determined men are Roosevelt, Willkie, La Guardia, Hoover, Hearst and others, advancing on an amazed and alarmed Hitler and Tojo.35 Just as Britain rallied under Churchill to block the onward march of fascism, Britain and a ‘united’ USA together would

in Half the battle
Communism, post-Communism, and the war in Croatia

Greater Serbianism.’ Greater Serbianism was supposedly ‘doubleedged’ because it was worse than either fascism or Communism, since it made co-nationals feel ‘politically and culturally threatened’, and ‘emboldened’ at the same time.104 Like Ćović, Miletić saw how Serbian leaders had used the rhetoric of victimisation to mobilise their people for war. In his tally of the costs of this ideology, Miletić concluded: Greater Serbianism has cost the lives of some 600,000 Croatians, 400,000 Muslims, 100,000 Albanians, and countless others this century, not to mention non

in Balkan holocausts?
Open Access (free)
The autonomous life?

anti-nuclear energy, anti-apartheid, anti-militarism, and anti-fascism. Many worked on solidarity campaigns with Nicaragua and El Salvador and organized attacks on the US Embassy to protest US foreign policy and the presidency of Ronald Reagan. The women’s movement manifested in the squatters’ subculture through a number of squats that banned the presence of men, to the point that during alarms, they permitted men to stand in front of the house but did not allow them to enter the squat to defend it from eviction

in The autonomous life?

kitchen between the two neighboring buildings. The members of this punk living group had considerable squatter capital. Most were veteran squatters who could build, break, and especially excelled in non-instrumental acts of bravery by enthusiastically participating in confrontations with the police and faithfully attending actions for radical left causes (anti-fur, animal rights, anti-fascism, women’s rights, immigrants’ rights, refugee support). The punk squatters were not expected to have organizational or strategic

in The autonomous life?