The French human sciences and the crafting of modern subjectivity,
local developments necessitated a concomitant interpretation of the place of individuals within their wider social collective. In an 1802 manuscript about insanity, Itard introduced a concept he called the ‘spirit of the present time’ (‘esprit du temps actuel’), which, he argued, constituted the most basic measure of mentalhealth and illness.
Sanity could thus only be defined as a function of the development of a more general, sometimes national, spirit. Political revolutions were comparable to the ‘blind anger of
A national ethics committee and bioethics during the 1990s
online at www.hsj.co.uk (accessed 14 February 2014).
193 Santry, ‘Healthcare Regulator Longed for Government’s Embrace’.
The Care Quality Commission was established by the government’s
2008 Health and Social Care Act, fulfilling New Labour’s goal of a
single, integrated regulator for medicine and social care. In addition
to the CHAI, it replaced the Commission for Social Care Inspection
and the MentalHealth Act Commission. See Klein, The New Politics
of the NHS, pp. 270–1.
194 Richard Ashcroft, ‘Futures for Bioethics?’ Bioethics, Vol. 24, no. 5
’s represented an official acknowledgement of the straitened circumstances facing officers without private means who required treatment for mental disorders. 103 It is unclear from the records what financial arrangements the West brothers made with the hospital. Through his actions, John ensured that Bruce received treatment in surroundings commensurate with his class and avoided the ignominy of committal to a psychiatric hospital. Wrapped up in John’s concern for his brother’s mentalhealth was anxiety over his brother’s, and his own, military and social standing.
trying to avoid his old regiment, the 9th Welch. In
December 1916, having heard that he probably would be assigned
there, he found himself back in hospital due to his lungs. On this
occasion he wrote to Masterman saying ‘I lie awake & perceive the
ward full of Huns of forbidding aspect . . . I am in short rather ill and
sometimes doubt my own sanity – indeed, quite frequently I do’,68
revealing that the state of his physical health is causing him less real
problem than that of his mentalhealth. His nightmares, and
daymares, have become more to the point.
When Ford was
Instead, relaxation was recharacterised as a technical, scientifically validated skill that required precise teaching and long-term cultivation. Once learned, relaxation methods could be applied as both prophylactic and therapy for a whole spectrum of physical and mentalhealth conditions, and used to improve states of well-being.
As Jacobson had argued in his seminal texts, Progressive Relaxation (1929) written for a medical readership, and You
swamping of the mentalhealth
services by between three and four million psychiatric cases.10 The
most pessimistic scenario was of mass panic leading to widespread
clamour for peace on any terms and of a government, because of
the paralysis of its military forces, forced to give way. All this pessimism about the power of bombing was mirrored in the official
policy that in 1935 made the building of a deterrent bomber force
the cornerstone of defence strategy; for only, it was believed, through
having the means to wreck the morale of the civilians of a continental enemy
Iain Lindsey, Tess Kay, Ruth Jeanes, and Davies Banda
education programs provide alternative education
opportunities for children who cannot attend school Sport can help erode stigma preventing children with disabilities from
MDG3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women
Sport helps improve female physical and mentalhealth and offers
opportunities for social interaction and friendship Sport participation leads to increased self-esteem, self-confidence, and
malnutrition, general poor physical health caused by privation of gas and coal, and mental-health problems caused by the stress
of occupation, the constant sound of shelling at the front and the risk of
Added to these sufferings was the threat of deportation. The line
between evacuation and deportation was blurred, with the Germans
engaging in the forcible removal of populations on a frequent basis
during 1916 and early 1917. The occupiers moved about 20,000
civilians –men, women and children –from Lille-Roubaix-Tourcoing to
the Ardennes in Easter 1916
57 WTE was a unit indicating the workload of a full-time member of staff. As members of the clinical team would not be employed solely for this work, predictions used WTE to estimate costs rather than new members of staff per se .
58 Services for the elderly, children, and people with mentalhealth and cognitive challenges were the initial priority areas: G. Rivett, From Cradle to Grave: Fifty Years of the NHS (London: King's Fund, 1998), pp. 272–5.
59 TNA, meeting note, ‘Facilities for the detection and
Narratives of balance and moderation at the limits of human
zone was a matter of technology , not biology ; we wore clothes, built shelters, mined coal to keep ourselves warm (processes which then, as forms of civilisation, placed new pressures on our physical and mentalhealth). The origins of this shift from the temperate zone to the tropics are too complex to be detailed here, but came from multiple sources from around 1880 to the middle of the twentieth century: anthropologists and archaeologists reconsidered the path of human origins; race scientists and geneticists reconsidered the relationships between ethnic groups