Open Access (free)
War economies, peace economies and transformation
Jenny H. Peterson

actors to instigate, participate in or prolong violence or where profits from the trade of resources acts primarily as a source of funding for ongoing political struggles (though these two functions can exist simultaneously or become more and less dominant throughout the course of a conflict). The trade of a commodity or an economic exchange may not be the sole cause of conflict, but does become a fundamental part of the conflict dynamic, impacting the nature and/or trajectory of political violence. In this sense, war economies do not simply refer to the state of an

in Building a peace economy?
Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

nature of American–Turkish relations as a whole. Despite its disapproval of Turkey’s human rights policies, Washington, for whom Turkey in the 1990s was as important an ally as it had been in the days of the cold war, did not let its, often justified, reproofs stand in the way of close cooperation with Ankara. In like manner, Turkey, though often exasperated with United States’, to its mind, selfish and myopic policies, nevertheless continued to collaborate closely with Washington. Situated in a dangerous region and surrounded by potential foes, Ankara knew that it

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Open Access (free)
Sara Haslam

faintest of smiles, the simplest of words, the slightest gesture’, and whilst the comparison with James is well-judged, Mizener misses the edge to this text, one that raises its game and enables comparison of its drama with that of The Good Soldier and Parade’s End.1 Freud has much to say of the active implications of ‘civilized society’. This society is one that demands good conduct and does not trouble itself about the instinctual basis of this conduct, [and] has thus won over to obedience a great many people who are not in this following their own natures. Encouraged

in Fragmenting modernism
R. H. Helmholz

R. H. Helmholz 5 Judges and trials in the English ecclesiastical courts R. H. Helmholz I Introduction This chapter examines the nature of trials in the English ecclesiastical courts, paying special attention to the role played by the judges. The sources upon which it is based are: first, the formal rules of procedural law and the commentaries upon them written by the canonists and other jurists of the European ius commune; and second, the act books and other ancillary material from the courts themselves. In accepting the invitation to contribute to this volume

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700
Open Access (free)
Power in cross-border Cooperation

The volume explores a question that sheds light on the contested, but largely cooperative, nature of Arctic governance in the post-Cold War period: How do power relations matter – and how have they mattered – in shaping cross-border cooperation and diplomacy in the Arctic? Through carefully selected case studies – from Russia’s role in the Arctic Council to the diplomacy of indigenous peoples’ organisations – this book seeks to shed light on how power performances are enacted constantly to shore up Arctic cooperation in key ways. The conceptually driven nature of the enquiry makes the book appropriate reading for courses in international relations and political geography, while the carefully selected case studies lend themselves to courses on Arctic politics.

An introduction to the book
Colin Coulter

Irish Republic from the status of a ‘carthorse’ to that of a ‘thoroughbred’.3 As the evidence of a nascent economic boom began to accumulate in the mid-1990s, numerous analysts sought to characterise the nature of the changes underway. While various terms were coined to capture the transformation of the southern Irish economy, there was, of course, one that would become indelibly inscribed upon the process and the period. In the summer of 1994, Kevin Gardiner of the Morgan Stanley investment bank in London sought to draw a comparison between the performance of the

in The end of Irish history?
Élisabeth Anstett

imprison, over the seventy years of their existence, around 15 million people. The precise nature of these camps, which were placed between 1930 and 1956 under the aegis of a dedicated central administration, the gulag,7 varied greatly according to specific local situations and prevailing historical circumstances, as these factors largely dictated the living conditions (and therefore life expectancy) of detainees, depending on whether, for example, they were employed in the agricultural or industrial sectors, or in mining, or imprisoned during particularly harsh periods

in Human remains and mass violence
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey Wood

8 Sociology geoffrey wood In his classic work on The Sociological Imagination, C. Wright Mills argued that it ‘enables the possessor to understand the historical scene in terms of its meaning for the inner life and external career of individuals’ (Mills 1959: 5). In other words, sociology seeks to explain the experience and life chances of the individual in terms of the wider historical and institutional context. Sociological accounts of the nature of democracy and democratization are thus less concerned with the formal constitution of governmental structures

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Pertti Joenniemi

Introduction: deviant voices NATO’s bombing campaign in Kosovo and the refusal of most Western leaders to regard it as war have prompted numerous questions about the nature of this episode in recent European history. How should ‘Kosovo’ be categorised? Can it be covered by the usual linguistic repertoire, or does ‘Kosovo’ testify to the fact that ‘war’ has

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
Regional elections and political parties
Cameron Ross

democracy has been further consolidated by a third round of regional elections conducted over the period 1999–2001. Manipulation of the electoral system However, the cynical nature in which President Yeltsin manipulated the election process in the regions has done much to damage the develop- FAD6 10/17/2002 5:45 PM Page 93 Regional elections and political parties 93 ment of a democratic political culture. Yeltsin’s victory over the parliamentarians signalled a victory of executive power over legislative power which eventually led to the development of a semi

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia