Open Access (free)
Gareth Millward

councils and MOHs. This caused great variation in the registration and uptake rates for vaccination across the country, as MOHs had different priorities and capacities within their local authorities (as was seen earlier with diphtheria and smallpox immunisation). In two cases, local scepticism even saw local authorities opt out of the scheme altogether. The health committee and MOH of Burton-on-Trent, Staffordshire believed that the national programme was in effect a giant experiment. They also objected to central government guidelines and control. Initially, therefore

in Vaccinating Britain
Open Access (free)
Emotion, affect and the meaning of activism
Hilary Pilkington

EDL is a self-consciously ‘feet on the street’ movement, and while each demonstration has a formal rationale – in line with the official ‘awareness raising’ mission of the movement – in practice for many participants it means ‘a good day out with a load of friends’1 (Richard). Demonstrations allow people to travel to different parts of the country, making ‘connections all over the place’ (Tim), and, in this way, forge the substance of solidarity; the feeling of being ‘one big family’. Thus in contrast to the frequent scepticism expressed about social media

in Loud and proud
Open Access (free)
Invisibility and erasure in The Two Merry Milkmaids
Chloe Porter

the popularity of invisibility as a theme and comic scepticism about its credibility. In The Two Merry Milkmaids , invisibility is both a joke and very serious. Clown characters, including Smirk, are bewildered as they are ignored by all around them when wearing the invisibility ring; on the other hand, the young scholar Dorilus utilises invisibility to save his beloved, Dorigene, from execution

in Making and unmaking in early modern English drama
Open Access (free)
Jes Wienberg

” (Friedman 1994 : 15ff, 37ff, 190 quote; 1995 ; 2005 ; 2007 ). But Friedman’s world-systems and view of cycles in the relationship between rise and decline, modernity and tradition, cannot be taken on board without scepticism. For it is remarkable that the nineteenth-century belief in progress and industrial expansion coincided with historicised architecture, the establishment of museums, and a reappearance of traditions. The relationship between modernity and tradition is not a simple dichotomy. Between modernity and tradition “You can be a museum, or you can be

in Heritopia
Open Access (free)
Graeme Kirkpatrick

towards wider change. In practice, the experience of an individual or a group of workers includes demystification, in the sense that they really get to know how things work (or don’t) and view management ideas, for example, with a healthy scepticism. Extending such demystification into a critical perspective on society at large is not straightforward because of reification and the hold of dominant ideological representations. As we have seen, the Frankfurt School largely neglected to explore this as a political question, considering such a level of thematisation as

in Technical politics
Rousseau as a constitutionalist
Mads Qvortrup

wrote, ‘is never corrupted, it is often misled, and only then does it want what is bad’ (III: 371). Empirical evidence does not support this scepticism, however; Charles de Gaulle lost the plebiscite on local government in 1969 and even General Pinochet was forced to step down when 56 per cent of the voters rejected a proposal which would have extended his powers. Whether referendums result in ‘plebiscitary dictatorship’ is ultimately an empirical question, but evidence does not readily support this thesis. This conclusion does not imply that Rousseau’s model was

in The political philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
The structures of migration in Tales from Firozsha Baag
Peter Morey

, interpretation for the reader is guided by the blend of Catholicism, sexuality and repression, woven into her narrative. The ghost first appears early on Christmas morning when Jaakaylee returns from midnight mass. We learn that the other, younger ayahs have gone off somewhere with their boyfriends. Her mistress and master, bai and seth, react with scepticism when awoken by their unnerved ayah. Bai is angry, but seth responds with good humour which Jaakaylee is soon able to account for: the audible creaking of their bed carries the sounds of intimacy, as the household settles

in Rohinton Mistry
S.J. Barnett

. That is to say, from a range of fairly common-or-garden possible politico-religious responses to the pressure of events and developments, one happened to be chosen that ostensibly resembled a known option within past intellectual frameworks. We might term this a context-interactive or organic process of intellectual change, which is of course very different from the traditional notion of influence proceeding in some disembodied intellectual form from one text to another. Once Bayle was deemed to have opened the breach for Enlightenment scepticism, leading to what

in The Enlightenment and religion
Open Access (free)
Melanie Giles

northern European bog body sacrifices, as promoted by Glob’s seminal 1969 volume. He queried the forensic analysis of Iain West (the lead pathologist) in the original monograph, preferring the scepticism of Robert Connolly (the physical anthropologist), who published his own brief assessment of the violence (Connolly 1985 ) prior to the British Museum volume (Stead et al. 1986 ). Connolly did not dismiss the skull fractures, but attributed the breaking of the neck not to a garotte but to a final blow on the back of the head/upper neck. He saw the ‘ligature’ as a

in Bog bodies
The canadianizing 1920s
Katie Pickles

canadianization define more clearly what it meant to be situated in Canadian space. With an imperial narrative still strong, the IODE’s response was pragmatic gendered work with immigrants, emphasizing skills above rhetoric. This was also because, with racial prejudices running high, there was scepticism about how successful canadianization could be, and it was still hoped that immigrants would be British

in Female imperialism and national identity