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Stan Metcalfe and Alan Warde

: ● ● ● ● ● it exacerbates negative externalities of markets; it is indifferent to conditions of labour; it incites fraud and opportunism; consumers are forced constantly to take seriously the imperative of caveat emptor; it creates social failure in the absence of adequate means to handle fairly and constructively, or to offer adequate compensation to, those who fail in the competitive process; Conclusion ● 203 the efficiency norm generates hyper-competition leading to poor quality and defective products, ineffective guarantees for consumers, perversely short-term

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Gritty realism

Reading Half-Life

Barry Atkins

be termed an audio ‘grittiness’. As The Blair Witch Project (1999) had demonstrated so effectively to much of its audience, low visual quality, a first-person perspective, and a soundtrack of unexplained noises off can be combined with great effect within the horror genre. Music, of a kind, still plays as we move through the text, but in place of the kind of rousing orchestral accompaniment that had provided a backdrop for Lara Croft’s more impressive entrances and exits, or the explicit musical cues that had alerted the player to imminent danger, the soundtrack of

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Patrick Doyle

-operative Wholesale Society (CWS) in Ireland proved to be the most direct influence over Irish co-operative development. Close proximity and shared language enhanced the transfer of ideas in the short term. The CWS, established in 1863, formed a leading component of the British co-operative retail movement. The society acted as the primary wholesale agent for the movement and sold commodities to individual co-operative retail societies, which in turn sold on to their members primarily located in the urban centres throughout England. The purchase of foodstuffs formed the largest

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Janelle Joseph

Canada and the Caribbean diaspora through cricket, cricket-related travel and imaginative rediscoveries of communities. Of the diaspora experience, Salman Rushdie ( 1991 , p. 9) writes that we “are haunted by some sense of loss … our physical alienation from [the homeland] almost inevitably means that we will not be capable of reclaiming precisely the thing that was lost; that we will, in short, create

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Why anarchism still matters

James Bowen and Jonathan Purkis

, whilst the media focused on the Black Block for allegedly provoking violence. Research into anarchist attitudes towards violence in the past has been mixed, with the response often based around the relative short- or long-term vision of the person(s) in question (Chan, 1995). On balance, however, the internationalisation of much anarchist action has produced a greater inclination towards nonviolence, bearing witness (in Mexico and Palestine for instance) and the sharing of experiences. Although some writers have equated nonviolence and pacifism with ‘pathology

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Gothic materialities

Regina Maria Roche, the Minerva Press, and the bibliographic spread of Irish gothic fiction

Christina Morin

hyper-nationalist loop’ Hoeveler identified in The children of the abbey , these journeys reflect contemporary patterns of short- and long-term Irish and English migration and emigration, colonial expansion, and popular tourism routes. More importantly, at least in terms of this discussion, they speak to expanding bibliographic networks and the new transnational story of books themselves. Circulated throughout Britain, Europe, North and South America, and the British Empire, Roche's novels introduced readers to elements of Irish culture, history

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Rhiannon Vickers

in 1939 to a peak of £5,125 million in 1944.10 Britain had used up its financial reserves to finance the war effort, and its manufacturing base had been disrupted. Exports of UK products had fallen from £471 million in 1938 to a low of £234 million in 1943, though had risen to £399 million in 1945.11 It owed debts to India, Canada and Australia totalling £3,567 million as a result of materials supplied during the war for which payment had been deferred.12 Millions of homes had been destroyed by German bombing. The USA halted Lend-Lease, the system of American

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The end of Irish history?

An introduction to the book

Colin Coulter

1 The end of Irish history? An introduction to the book COLIN COULTER During the Easter vacation of 2001, I happened to be travelling through the United States and picked up a copy of a renowned popular music magazine to pass the time on a short internal flight. While leafing through the publication, I stumbled across a feature that struck me as having no little cultural significance. It was a single-frame, full-page advertisement for some commodity or other set in a stylish contemporary bathroom that could have been located in more or less any major city in

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Chechnya and Kosovo

Reflections in a distorting mirror

Christoph Zürcher

, allied aircraft leave at short intervals. The British frigate HMS Splendid fires a salvo of cruise missiles. These events are broadcast in real time by satellite links all over the globe. These are the pictures that the public has been told to expect for weeks. It is the beginning of NATO’s Operation Allied Force, the long-announced answer of the international community to ethnic cleansing in

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‘Our devices for that solemne and Iouiall daye’

The writers, the artificers and the livery companies

Tracey Hill

’s interpretation compares interestingly to the view of one contemporary writer, Jonson, whose view tended to be that there was a hierarchical distinction between what could be called ‘the body’ of a staged performance, created by the artificer (‘short-liu’d’, as he puts it, and appealing to the senses) and its ‘soul’, created by the poet (designed to appeal to the understanding).85 The former, more ‘artisanal’ part of the equation, also had connections to ‘plat’, ‘the technical term for the schematic working drawings used by the mason, carpenter and surveyor’.86 This highlights