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S.J. Barnett

its iniquitous nature. In an effort to promote their own sects, dissenting propagandists were also inclined to exaggerate rather than minimize threats to Christianity as proof that the Anglican Church–state alliance was leading to iniquity. In an age of widening access to print, therefore, it was only natural that elements of this type of strategy would bequeath significant ‘evidence’ of deism in the historical record greatly disproportional to actual reality. In this period (and indeed into the next century) heresy and unbelief were often sensationalized and

in The Enlightenment and religion
Open Access (free)
Edward M. Spiers

‘very well; even better than I ever lived in barracks. Plenty of biscuits, tinned meat, cheese, jam, fruit and bread, and fresh meat whenever it is possible to get it.’ 46 Some lauded his tactics in the final push on Ladysmith with a sustained onslaught, and heavy use of artillery and Maxims, over eleven days (16–27 February); many remained fiercely loyal to him thereafter. 47 Veterans of previous wars

in The Victorian soldier in Africa
Open Access (free)
Saving the White voters from being ‘utterly swamped’
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips and Shurlee Swain

their counter-insurgency strategy, British forces took to burning down Boer farms, and putting the Boer women and children in concentration camps, where many thousands of them died of disease. Thousands of Africans, uprooted from the burned farms, were also placed in separate camps – where they, too, died of disease in their thousands. The British Government insisted that the war was over – but it dragged on

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
Wilkes and America
Peter D.G. Thomas

power came only a few weeks before the next Parliamentary session. Political analyses suggested that the Prime Minister would have little difficulty in the House of Commons. On 4 November Thomas Hunter produced a calculation for his Treasury Board colleagues of 349 ministerial supporters there, with 200 MPs as opposition or doubtful.16 But Grenville knew well enough the contrast between paper majorities and political reality. They could melt away in the face of sustained attacks by opposition spokesmen, and it was the widespread contemporary opinion that the

in George III
India and America
Peter D.G. Thomas

employment, is the surest way to support the party, and the cause’.22 Rockingham was irate when Lord John Cavendish resigned from the Treasury Board.23 This bizarre political strategy survived even a personal quarrel. Pitt totally ignored Rockingham when constructing his ministry, a snub so marked that Conway persuaded him to visit the Marquess on 27 July, only for Rockingham to refuse to see him.24 The disinclination of Rockingham and Newcastle to oppose Chatham was surrendering to him, not surrounding him. The outcome might well have been the disintegration of their own

in George III
Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

states’ such as Belarus, they wonder ‘whether such a defence can be sustained in the face of democratic backsliding elsewhere’, that is, in geopolitically more strategic countries. This underlines the Council’s dual nature, some would say dilemma, as an intergovernmental, i.e. political, organisation and one based on fundamental, i.e. non-political, human values. MUP_Torbion_06_Ch6 123 22/9/03, 1:47 pm 124 Destination Europe 8 In the event, hostilities were to break out again in the autumn of 1999. In the war, the Chechnyan capital of Grozny was levelled to the

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
‘Commonwealth’ politics under George I, 1714–22
Justin Champion

Dissenters into civil government would infringe the ‘common safety’; while dissenting tradesmen might benefit the community ‘dissenting statesmen must be dangerous’.54 The thrust of the counter-polemic against Toland in 1717 indicated the division within Whig ideology about the limits of toleration and the relationship between civil and religious liberties. Toland’s strategy was twofold: to cultivate support for a suspension of the remaining statutes against conscience, and to encourage a renovation of the ecclesiastical institutions he saw as causing the problems of

in Republican learning
Open Access (free)
Jane Brooks

3 Nursing presence Somehow it’s more than just good nursing that’s required of us, it’s endless donkey work and then it’s endless interest in the boys and encouragement and jokes, and endless sense of humour, and then there’s the job of amusing them when they are getting better and then there’s the inevitable letters afterwards!1 Military success in war was contingent on men sustaining a determination to fight. Persuading men to continue fighting or returning them to combat after illness or injury depended on maintaining their morale. On active service

in Negotiating nursing
Joy Damousi

’ children. With this research in hand, the NAACP took the next step in its campaign against segregation.70 At a meeting in 1950, all members of the NAACP, including its branch and state conferences, decided to tackle the question of educational segregation in a bold move; the psychical and psychological harm of segregation was immediate and devastating in its impact on ‘Negro’ children, and action needed to be swift and direct.71 As part of this strategy, Robert L. Carter, a lawyer in the NAACP, decided to draw on the wider expertise and knowledge of a range of

in A history of the case study
Open Access (free)
Practices, conflicts, and impact in the sixteenth century
Philippe Rogger

sustainable 1 Bernhard Stettler, Die Eidgenossenschaft im 15. Jahrhundert (Menziken: Markus Widmer-Dean, 2004), pp. 233–256; Walter Schaufelberger, ‘Spätmittelalter’, Handbuch der Schweizer Geschichte, vol. 1 (Zurich: Berichthaus, 1972), pp. 239–388 (pp. 336–358). 2 Walter Schaufelberger, Marignano: Strukturelle Grenzen eidgenössischer Militärmacht zwischen Mittelalter und Neuzeit, Schriftenreihe der Gesell­ schaft für militärhistorische Studienreisen, 11 (Frauenfeld: Huber, 1993); Regula Schmid, ‘Gemein Eitgnossen hattend nie vil gewunnen, über den Gothart zu reisen

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789