Time and space in family migrant networks between Kosovo and western Europe

be re-established across polity borders without involving material flows from migrants to villagers.3 Cross-border marriages opened up a ‘marriage-scape’, which created (a hoped-for utopia of) joint, villager–migrant temporal space. Here, polity borders furnished incentives for new forms of solidarity, exchange and communication. The certainty that migrants would come home once a year to enjoy themselves and relax also affected the village’s temporality. Every summer, for a few weeks, the village was suddenly upgraded to modernity. In so far as Kosovo then became

in Migrating borders and moving times

duty-free entry for all exports (except arms) from LDCs into the EU market. The value of preferences for developing countries, on the other hand, will decrease over time as MFN rates are cut. In order to provide some special and differential treatment, the EU will provide greater certainty and predictability that those reductions will be progressive (CEC, 2001a, 2001b). The new Partnership Agreements with the ACP are designed to enable the ACP states to manage the challenge of globalisation and adapt progressively to the new conditions of international trade, thereby

in EU development cooperation
Open Access (free)
Precedents to sustainability in nineteenth-century literature and culture

’s environment (2007: 34). Seeing the ‘openness’, fluidity and lack of certainty of non-representational art (from Coleridge to The Cure) as well-placed to articulate this ‘strange’ ecomimetic ambience, Morton argues that we need a ‘dark ecological’ aesthetics (rather Sustenance from the past 41 than idealisations of nature) to confront an estrangement from nature that has always been part of the human condition but which has now been heightened by environmental crisis. Morton suggests that the distancing achieved, by shattering our illusions, would be a necessary step

in Literature and sustainability
The poetics of sustainability and the politics of what we’re sustaining

do not syntactically expect them, encouraging us to take breaths at the same time as forcing us to read through them to provoke the sense of a future ‘taking shape’ too quickly for us to control. The processes of nature cannot be contained by form or syntax, however, and conventional categories are exceeded by the enjambed lines. As a result, when the narrator insists that a ‘calm and / true’ state ‘did exist just yesterday’ (Graham 2008a: 3), it reads as another projection of human order rather than as an affirmation of former certainties, further undermined by

in Literature and sustainability
Sarah Orne Jewett, The Tory Lover, and Walter Scott, Waverley

loyalties, responsibilities and ties of indebtedness for most people. Revolutions, on the other hand, are radical precisely because commitments become sharper and permanent. This is, as Jewett’s old Major realises, a different war – ‘war with moral enemies, and for opinion’s sake’ (TL, p. 61) – that lacks the ‘happy certainties’ (TL, p. 60, my emphasis) of previous conflicts. Her novel chronicles a break with the old life, making one a ‘stranger in the familiar house’ (TL, p. 84). So, for all its concern for the Loyalists’ plight and unorthodox sense that this was in effect

in Special relationships
Open Access (free)
A bounded security role in a greater Europe

countries. Tim McDaniel has described this idea as the certainty that Russia has a distinctive cultural and historical tradition that sets it apart from the rest of Europe and guarantees its future as a great power.23 Not surprisingly, the problem with this idea of Russia – la grande Russie and la Russie éternelle – is that the Russian state can no longer support it, the Russian people can no longer endure it, and Europe can no longer afford it. Russia is too close to ignore, too big to integrate, too unstable to rattle, and too nuclear to offend: neither the United

in Limiting institutions?
Open Access (free)
Domestic change through European integration

particular, resistance to or neglect of European laws is repeatedly argued on the basis that these laws contradict the principle of legality dominating the Austrian system. Thus, experts in EC law warn against the increasing lack of legal certainty. Here again, further in-depth studies are needed in order to assess the quantity and quality of non-compliance. With regard to the changes Austria has undergone since the beginning of its EU membership, one final remark must be made about the EP elections in June 1999. The results underlined Austrian ambivalence toward the Union

in Fifteen into one?

dabbled in the more frivolous activities of dancing, romancing and playacting. The fragments of Toland’s romantic poetry do not establish with any certainty the merits of his abilities; sadly the plays he wrote for the polite female company he associated with in the early 1720s do not survive. The point to reinforce is, however, simple. Toland was ubiquitous, he was everywhere important, at the elbow of the great and good, in the coffee-house, in the precincts of parliaments and courts. He communicated simultaneously with a variety of audiences, a bespoke powerful elite

in Republican learning
Libraries, friends and conversation

Eugene’s reputation and role as leading military defender of the international Protestant interest. As will be argued in a later chapter, we know that Toland’s relationship with these two figures prompted him to compose a number of works which were initially only conceived of as private scribal works intended for inclusion in their libraries. In these connections and encounters with men and books lie the origins of Toland’s lifetime work. This cultural encounter prompted first dialogue, and then transformation of the commonplace certainties of that orthodox culture

in Republican learning
Ideology and the Conservative Party, 1997–2001

for something which – superficially, at least – can be made to look like a living reality. Advocates of English nationalism, like Simon Heffer and Teresa Gorman, might not have thought through the economic implications of their idea. But it seems that, if the unsavoury choice were presented, they would prefer flinty independence to prosperity. The possible ramifications are intriguing; for example, under conditions of autarchy, economic liberalism would have to go at last. The only certainty, as members of the party face yet another period in which there is ‘little

in The Conservatives in Crisis