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Jews in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries a polemical literature intended for internal purposes, a special section of which is devoted to the matter of apostates. It was clear to the authors of this polemical literature that at that time Goldin, Apostasy and Jewish identity.indd 37 20/08/2014 12:34:43 38 Apostasy and Jewish identity there were apostate Jews among the Christians, and that it was they who taught the Christians the arguments of the Jews. The polemical books fulfill a three-fold function: to strengthen Jews against Christian arguments, to serve

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
Open Access (free)
Looking beyond the state

placed under the historical microscope, was far from being as distinct, cohesive or even as elite, as has generally been assumed. 4 To this end, the overarching aim of this volume is to emphasise both the Colonial Medical Service’s internal diversity and its far-reaching external connections. It raises a number of pertinent questions for further debate: to what extent did colonial doctors collaborate

in Beyond the state
Missions, the colonial state and constructing a health system in colonial Tanganyika

in the Introduction, such collaboration between colonial state and non-state partners usually reflected colonial self-interest, and the model that had emerged by the mid-1940s certainly did that. But it also reflected internal dialogues within and between mission medical providers as to their wider social role. In other words, the public-private (voluntary) partnership that was established reflected

in Beyond the state
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Fetters of an American farmgirl

farmer’ (AF, p. 200). However, such Rousseauvian sentiments prove hard Our Nig: fetters of an American farmgirl 75 to sustain. James may finally revert to being a simple farmer, but only by the extraordinary device of deserting his life as an ‘opulent farmer . . . surrounded with every conveniency which our external labor, and internal industry could give’ in order to procure ‘a simple subsistence with hardly any superfluity, [which] cannot have the same restrictive effect on our minds’ (AF, p. 225). In this formulation the phrase, ‘external labor, and internal

in Special relationships
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Diversification and the rise of fragmented time systems

middle. For example, working-time accounts (time banking) can – if properly designed – be a mechanism that offers increased internal flexibility for employers 114 Making work more equal while also enhancing flexibility for employees (Fagan, 2004: 125–9; Messenger, 2004: 181–3). Similarly, it can be noted that employer interests are not transparent; the strict pursuit of short-term interests in employer-oriented flexibility is not necessarily in the long-term interests of firms. Moreover, in practice even opposed interests may interact and lead to negotiated

in Making work more equal

14 Labour policies in a deflationary environment Annamaria Simonazzi Introduction National models of employment, production and welfare both mediate and respond to multiple pressures for change associated with various external and internal challenges: increased globalisation, deregulation and financialisation of markets, technological change, the ageing of the population and migration flows. The analysis of these challenges, their effect ‘in maintaining, reshaping, revitalizing or indeed destabilizing national employment models’, as well as the interlocking

in Making work more equal

could now be used as a catalyst from which a new Swedish model, befitting the globalised and Europeanised reality of Swedish policy-making, could potentially emerge. Second, and equally importantly, show that powerful challenges to the continued relevance of the labour movement in Swedish policy-making are currently in operation. Internally, the centre-right coalition government’s labour and trade union laws diminish the power of organised labour. Externally, a recent ruling by the European Court of Justice may have longterm implications for the viability of the

in In search of social democracy

is no longer read as a structural necessity, which has opened the way for new organising principles and departures. The grand narrative of regular and instrumental major war has been replaced by a pattern of violence which is more localised and less easy to define as either ‘internal’ or ‘external’. 12 Students of global politics are therefore faced with a choice: should they continue to label these

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
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Reading Tomb Raider

a feature of Tomb Raider, is intended to spark a certain frisson of complicity in the reader or viewer. That the trick’s methodology might be visible can add to, rather than detract from, the experience of reading. It certainly does not render an otherwise realist text somehow unreadable. What is meant by realism here, then, places the emphasis on the ‘ism’ as much as on the ‘real’, and is intended to suggest that the ‘world’ offered by the game is itself internally consistent, realistic in its own terms and according to its conventions. To make this claim is no

in More than a game
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An introduction

been penned by philosophers, while much of the work currently described as ‘continental philosophy’ now emerges from departments of literature. But the reader’s comments also serve to remind us of the extent to which the dialogue which already exists between these two subjects now needs to be made still more explicit. There are, after all, tensions to be plotted here, as well as affinities. In this respect of course there are other more tangible reasons why the anonymous reader’s distinction between literature and philosophy seems a less than helpful one. Maybe the

in The new aestheticism