Open Access (free)
Reasonable tolerance
Catriona McKinnon and Dario Castiglione

political conflicts that divided European societies along religious lines. Although the ascendancy of arguments for religious tolerance can be traced to considerations of prudence and political realism,5 from a more principled perspective, toleration was supported along two main lines of reasoning. One was overtly sceptical and secularist, undermining the truth-content of religious beliefs and their relevance for social and political coexistence; the other was more subtly latitudinarian, questioning the control that we have on our own beliefs, and the selfdefeating nature

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies
Jeffrey Denton

need to construct a secure legal and political context for them. And the startingpoint must be the nature of the documents themselves. What were they? Both documents were notarially attested statements aiming to establish a proper juridical procedure. They are legal documents, in the nature of individual appeals, in March by William de Nogaret and in June by William de Plaisians. These secular lawyers were the key royal agents in the whole affair. Nogaret’s statement was, in the first place, a supplication to the king that, having interceded with leading churchmen

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700
From Afghanistan to Iraq
Kerry Longhurst

perspectives on the use of force within the changing context of transatlantic relations. The changing contours of transatlantic relations The change in German security thinking at the beginning of the twentyfirst century took place within an already evolving context of transatlantic relations. Developments on both sides of the Atlantic in the field of foreign and security policy were setting out quite different European and American agendas and perspectives on the use of force in international politics in the 1990s. Two processes stand out here as illustrative of the nature of

in Germany and the use of force
Paul Latawski and Martin A. Smith

Transatlantic relations have been a core issue in European – especially West European – security since the end of the Second World War. The first section of this chapter examines the nature of the transatlantic relationship and its Cold War evolution. Attention then moves, in the second section, to considering its development during the years since 1989. It will then be argued, in the third and final

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security
Open Access (free)
‘Commonwealth’ politics under George I, 1714–22
Justin Champion

courage and conduct, of liberal and generous spirits’. Jews as humans, deserved to be regarded ‘under the common circumstances of human nature’ and as ‘creatures of the same species’. The diversity of manners ‘and especially contrary rites or doctrines in religion’ led to hatred, cruel persecution and murder.14 The experience of dissenting Protestants under the lash of ‘popery’ was similar.15 Typically, for Toland, the sad experience of the Jews was not the result of accident but the design of corrupt priests who acted like ‘ravenous wolves’. ‘Their most inveterate

in Republican learning
Open Access (free)
John Callaghan, Steven Fielding, and Steve Ludlam

. That is, they thought it to be an ineluctable force whose destiny was to fulfil a historic mission, the nature of which could be anything from narrowly electoral to broadly anti-systemic. Such an approach is less obvious today, when so few believe in the prospect of establishing a social democratic – let alone a socialist – Britain. Indeed, ITLP_A02.QXD 18/8/03 9:53 am Page 2 2 Introduction those who retain some hope that socialism remains possible – in particular those dubbed ‘Milibandian’ – consider that Labour was never that type of party. In contrast, some

in Interpreting the Labour Party
Is the CFSP sui generis?
Jakob C. Øhrgaard

. However, the aim is not to provide an empirically neutral and comprehensive account of CFSP, but rather to highlight issues of theoretical relevance, and it will therefore be done with the various theoretical alternatives in mind. Hence the discussion will be structured around the following key issues of relevance to the main theoretical debates: the key actors and the institutional framework for their cooperation; the nature of

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
Paul Warde

development policy dominated by ecological and evolutionary approaches that argue that substitutability is frequently not possible, and that the keystone nature of certain species and processes (sometimes known as ‘control parameters’, variation in which prompts non-linear behaviour) are what defines particular ecologies (and perhaps economies), a failure in which can prompt mass extinction, neo-classical economics has by and large been happy to abstract humanity out of these constraints. Recent economic studies have also given more prominence to the importance of the

in History, historians and development policy
Suzanne Conklin Akbari

1 Incorporation in the Siege of Melayne Suzanne Conklin Akbari In the debate concerning precisely what constitutes a medieval ‘romance’ the Siege of Melayne occupies a special position. As a number of readers have noted, this poem participates in the conventions both of romance (understood as a genre fundamentally concerned with the deeds of knights) and of hagiography. The focus of such cross-generic readings is usually the character of Archbishop Turpin who, as Barron puts it, has ‘as much of the saint as of the soldier in his nature’.1 The crossgeneric status

in Pulp fictions of medieval England
Sabine Doering-Manteuffel and Stephan Bachter

control and govern nature. The dominance of theological world-views ceded considerable ground to secular intellectual concepts. Latin disappeared as the language of elite discourse. Increased educational provision provided access to sources of knowledge that were previously unattainable to all but a few. A market for books and newspapers, for journals and weeklies developed rapidly.1 More and more people lower down the social scale became increasingly involved in a literary culture. Accordingly, the ‘common’ people began to learn from their history. They were taught new

in Beyond the witch trials