a metonym for bureaucratic overflow, may be helpful in
answering these questions.
A short history of red tape
The Spanish administration of Charles V, King of Spain and Holy
Roman Emperor (1500–1558), started to use red tape to bind critical
administrative dossiers requiring immediate discussion by the Council
of State, in order to differentiate them from ordinary documents,
which were bound with simple string (Dickson, 2015). Red tape
was obviously a frame that was expected to tame the overflow:
there were too many documents, and
Demand-side abundance and its discontents in Hungary during the long
simple reason that no one needs or wants them.
From the consumer’s perspective, however, it makes little difference
that, although their everyday experience was predominantly with
quantitative and/or qualitative shortages, ‘goods’ (good for nothing)
were filling warehouses.
Even the idea that the consumer should, by definition, have an
agency in the sphere of economic activity seems to have been all
too often absent from (or hardly reflected upon in) the writings and
ideas of many of Hungary’s reform economists.
The consumer citizen of
Otmar Höll, Johannes Pollack and Sonja Puntscher-Riekmann
Council of Ministers to a
representative nominated by the Länder (Article 23d §3). Foreseeing their
shrinking influence without close co-operation, the Länder founded the
‘Integration Conference of the Länder,’ comprising the Landeshauptleute
and the Standing Committee of the Länder. In practice, the Standing
Committee plays only a marginal role since it is not provided with sufficient resources to cope with the enormous information overflow.
Reflecting the strategy of the EU Commission to bypass the federal
governments, some of the Austrian Länder have opened
States, it is
well known how freely the Irish immigrant chooses his own religion
according to the new lights and new influences around him’.97 The
Presbyterian missionary Edward Dill concurred. In a state-of-thenation thesis published in 1852 he assigned all of ‘Ireland’s miseries’
to Catholicism, and though he warned Britain and America of the
dangers of being overwhelmedby Catholic emigrants, he also felt
that once away from ‘horsewhipping priests’ and surrounded by good
Protestant example, they could ‘[rise] to comfort and [walk] with
God’.98 Edgar, meanwhile
authorities were never overwhelmed and
were frequently touched by the harrowing stories refugees brought
with them. Despite the ‘silence’ that Orwell observed among the public,
and despite a general wariness about foreigners and fifth columns,
there was a general sympathy with their plight. At a café in Waltham
Cross, Mass-Observation overheard a conversation between the sixtyyear-old proprietress and two of her younger customers, in which all
agreed it ‘must be terrible’ for the refugees.46 There were also many
spontaneous charitable gestures. The WVS recalls how, in May
The overwhelming impression is that Dunkirk evacuees, of all
nationalities, were given a hero’s welcome on their arrival in Britain,
this to the astonishment of some French soldiers who feared that they
would be accused of letting Britain down. Such was the anxiety of a
Lieutenant ‘B’, later killed while fighting with the Free French, who was
overwhelmedby the kindness shown to him by the British public.15
Indeed, the cheering crowds that Orwell witnessed at Victoria and
Warterloo were replicated elsewhere. In a wide-ranging thesis on
many of his peers in talent and zeal.
From there he moved on to the study of law. But when he was in the
country, either because he was terriﬁed and prostrated by a bolt of lightning,
as is commonly said, or because he was overwhelmed with grief at the death
of a companion, through contempt of this world he suddenly – to the
astonishment of many – entered the Monastery of the brothers of St Augustine,
who are commonly called the Hermits. After a year’s probation, his profession
of that order was made legitimate, and there in his studies and spiritual exercises
his side. The thing is imagined to be don in the Ile of Sicily
by the Sea shore of whose singing, this Idillion is called Bvcoliastae, that is, Singers of a
Daphnis. Menalcas. Gotehearde.
With louely Netehearde Daphnis on the hills, they saie,
Shepehearde Menalcas mett, vpon a summers daie.
Both youthfull striplings, both had yeallow heades of heare,
In whistling both, and both in singing skilfull weare.
Menalcas first, behoulding Daphnis, thus bespake.
Menalcas. Wilt thou in singing, Netehearde Daphnis, vndertake
To striue with me? for