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a metonym for bureaucratic overflow, may be helpful in answering these questions. A short history of red tape The Spanish administration of Charles V, King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor (1500–1558), started to use red tape to bind critical 172 Overwhelmed by overflows administrative dossiers requiring immediate discussion by the Council of State, in order to differentiate them from ordinary documents, which were bound with simple string (Dickson, 2015). Red tape was obviously a frame that was expected to tame the overflow: there were too many documents, and

in Overwhelmed by overflows?
Demand-side abundance and its discontents in Hungary during the long 1960s

simple reason that no one needs or wants them. From the consumer’s perspective, however, it makes little difference that, although their everyday experience was predominantly with quantitative and/or qualitative shortages, ‘goods’ (good for nothing) were filling warehouses. Even the idea that the consumer should, by definition, have an agency in the sphere of economic activity seems to have been all too often absent from (or hardly reflected upon in) the writings and ideas of many of Hungary’s reform economists. 14 Overwhelmed by overflows The consumer citizen of

in Overwhelmed by overflows?
Open Access (free)
Domestic change through European integration

Council of Ministers to a representative nominated by the Länder (Article 23d §3). Foreseeing their shrinking influence without close co-operation, the Länder founded the ‘Integration Conference of the Länder,’ comprising the Landeshauptleute and the Standing Committee of the Länder. In practice, the Standing Committee plays only a marginal role since it is not provided with sufficient resources to cope with the enormous information overflow. Reflecting the strategy of the EU Commission to bypass the federal governments, some of the Austrian Länder have opened

in Fifteen into one?
Emigration and sectarian rivalry

States, it is well known how freely the Irish immigrant chooses his own religion according to the new lights and new influences around him’.97 The Presbyterian missionary Edward Dill concurred. In a state-of-thenation thesis published in 1852 he assigned all of ‘Ireland’s miseries’ to Catholicism, and though he warned Britain and America of the dangers of being overwhelmed by Catholic emigrants, he also felt that once away from ‘horsewhipping priests’ and surrounded by good Protestant example, they could ‘[rise] to comfort and [walk] with God’.98 Edgar, meanwhile

in Population, providence and empire
Open Access (free)
Refugees

authorities were never overwhelmed and were frequently touched by the harrowing stories refugees brought with them. Despite the ‘silence’ that Orwell observed among the public, and despite a general wariness about foreigners and fifth columns, there was a general sympathy with their plight. At a café in Waltham Cross, Mass-Observation overheard a conversation between the sixtyyear-old proprietress and two of her younger customers, in which all agreed it ‘must be terrible’ for the refugees.46 There were also many spontaneous charitable gestures. The WVS recalls how, in May

in The forgotten French
Open Access (free)
Servicemen

. The overwhelming impression is that Dunkirk evacuees, of all nationalities, were given a hero’s welcome on their arrival in Britain, this to the astonishment of some French soldiers who feared that they would be accused of letting Britain down. Such was the anxiety of a Lieutenant ‘B’, later killed while fighting with the Free French, who was overwhelmed by the kindness shown to him by the British public.15 Indeed, the cheering crowds that Orwell witnessed at Victoria and Warterloo were replicated elsewhere. In a wide-ranging thesis on Franco-British relations

in The forgotten French

many of his peers in talent and zeal. From there he moved on to the study of law. But when he was in the country, either because he was terrified and prostrated by a bolt of lightning, as is commonly said, or because he was overwhelmed with grief at the death of a companion, through contempt of this world he suddenly – to the astonishment of many – entered the Monastery of the brothers of St Augustine, who are commonly called the Hermits. After a year’s probation, his profession of that order was made legitimate, and there in his studies and spiritual exercises he

in Luther’s lives

his side. The thing is imagined to be don in the Ile of Sicily by the Sea shore of whose singing, this Idillion is called Bvcoliastae, that is, Singers of a Neteheards song. BVCOLIASTÆ. Daphnis. Menalcas. Gotehearde. With louely Netehearde Daphnis on the hills, they saie, Shepehearde Menalcas mett, vpon a summers daie. Both youthfull striplings, both had yeallow heades of heare, In whistling both, and both in singing skilfull weare. Menalcas first, behoulding Daphnis, thus bespake. Menalcas. Wilt thou in singing, Netehearde Daphnis, vndertake To striue with me? for

in Pastoral poetry of the English Renaissance