Urban transformation and public health in future cities
Michael Keith and Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos
a way to tackle culture, identity and representation, and not only economical and ecological processes.
Ecological, material, economic and political aspects of sanitation also feature in Warren Smit’s discussion of the food environment and health in Africancities in Chapter 6 , ‘The food environment and health in Africancities: analysing the linkages and exploring possibilities for improving health and wellbeing’. Food environments are discussed, considering factors that have an impact on the production, retail and consumption of food in cities. Looking at
ﬁgure he is also considered as a generalised and elevated symbol of the new South
Africa. To corroborate this fact, according to the Guardian (21 October 2002), p.
14, plans are underway to build a colossus of Mandela in the South Africancity of
Port Elizabeth, based on the model of the Statue of Liberty. Towering 30 storeys
high over the harbour, the statue, due for completion in 2006, will stand on a plinth
housing a ‘museum of freedom’.
24 See Ray, En-gendering India, pp. 23–50, for her discussion of the novelist Bankim’s
nationalist reiﬁcation of woman as a
Sustainability in Kim Stanley Robinson’s Science in the Capital
, for example, was commissioned by
the Canadian army to write a narrative of future trends in conflict situations.
The result, Crisis in Zefra (2005), uses the fictional Africancity of Zefra
to explore future technological and strategic military innovations and to
assess their potential risk and competition in a part of the world afflicted
by resource scarcity. While Andrew Milner notes that sf may be value-free
in the sense that the genre does not imply a priori political, ethical or
aesthetic values, he does insist that it is value-relevant in that specific