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Raymond Hinnebusch

war. The failure of order-building efforts to address these war-inducing factors means the Middle East has been immune to the spread of the ‘zone of peace’. The emergence of a Middle East system Built-in irredentism: origins of the Arab–Israeli conflict The irredentism built into the flawed states system imposed on the region after World War I was epitomised by the conflict over Palestine, perhaps the single factor which has most profoundly shaped Middle East international politics. This conflict

in The international politics of the Middle East
Open Access (free)
The international system and the Middle East
Raymond Hinnebusch

deployed outside the Soviet Bloc. Israel, realising the magnitude of the Soviet involvement, stopped the deep penetration bombing. To defuse the situation, the US, in the Rogers Plan, proposed a ceasefire and a broader settlement of the Arab–Israeli conflict. Nasser’s internationalisation of the conflict did not, however, break the occupation stalemate (Evron 1973: 96–101, 185–6; Riad 1982: 103–7; Smith 1996: 217–20; Walt 1987: 108–10). Meanwhile, indeed, the US relationship with Israel grew ever closer despite certain conflicts of interest between

in The international politics of the Middle East
Thomas Robb

East had often clashed since the beginning of the Cold War. With Heath coming to office this only continued, and his ambition of resolving the Arab–Israeli conflict caused further US–UK disagreement. Heath had signalled his intention to find a resolution to the Arab–Israeli conflict soon after assuming office and this solution, as Douglas-Home publicly declared in October 1970 during a speech at Harrogate, would be based on the general contours of UN Resolution 242. Briefly summarised, this meant that Israel would have to surrender the land it had occupied following

in A strained partnership?
Water scarcity, the 1980s’ Palestinian uprising and implications for peace
Jeffrey Sosland

so well worth fighting for. Moreover, water scarcity issues inevitably become co-mingled with other factors and so may play a significant role in heightening tensions among feuding parties. Some of the most enduring conflicts in the international arena, including the Arab–Israeli conflict, the India–Pakistan dispute and the Syrian–Turkish conflict, to name only a few, have all involved serious

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Cinema, news media and perception management of the Gaza conflicts
Shohini Chaudhuri

and away from governments. Whilst Western mainstream media, especially in the United States, is ‘traditionally heavily skewed towards the pro-Israeli view … now, for the first time, in a major Arab-Israeli conflict, the American public has other sources of reality’, namely endless pictures of dead Palestinian children: Netanyahu complained

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Open Access (free)
A bounded security role in a greater Europe
Simon Serfaty

commitments for Pakistan, including aid and preferential trade treatment extended to textiles, and for Central Asia it doubled its allocations.33 In future years, more will be expected from the EU, especially for the Arab–Israeli conflict, where a pronounced pro-Arab bias often leaves the EU at odds with the United States, and in the Persian Gulf, where the United States and most EU members continue to hold different views on the political rehabilitation of both Iran and Iraq. But for the EU to respond to these lofty expectations, its members will first need to agree over

in Limiting institutions?
A dialogue with Islam as a pattern of conflict resolution and a security approach vis-à-vis Islamism
Bassam Tibi

movement. In moving from the case of Islamism in the Maghreb to the entire Middle Eastern regional state subsystem, which represents the arena of the ArabIsraeli conflict, 29 the search is for peaceful conflict resolution, which goes beyond the states. At issue is the rise of Islamism as a new political opposition. The foremost goal of Islamism is to establish a new political order described as an Islamic

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Raymond Hinnebusch

was decisive in forcing Egypt to seek a negotiated solution, he argues that the role of leadership in the bargaining process decided the exact terms of the settlement in Israel’s favour. At Camp David and thereafter, Israel got all that it wanted – a peace treaty which took Egypt out of the Arab–Israeli conflict and left it free to incorporate the West Bank/Gaza area – while Egypt failed to get recognition of the principle of Palestinian rights, failed to link normalisation of relations with Israel to progress on the Palestinian front, and failed even to get a

in The international politics of the Middle East
Open Access (free)
Simon Mabon

: A Political History Since World War I (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013), p. 74. 57 Letters and declarations 57 43 Quoted in Edward Said, The Question of Palestine (New York: Random House, 2003), p. 13. 44 David Ben Gurion, Memoirs (New York: World, 1970), p. 26. 45 W. T. Mallison, Jr., ‘The Balfour Declaration: An Appraisal in International Law’, in Ibrahim Abu-​Lughod (ed.), The Transformation of Palestine: Essays on the Origin and Development of the Arab-​Israeli Conflict (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1971), p. 98. 46 See www

in Houses built on sand
A veiled threat
Thomas J. Butko

observed in the round of violence and instability gripping the Middle East since September 2000 to the time of writing. While Hamas faces an uncertain future, as long as peace continues to elude the two principal parties of the Arab–Israeli conflict, it will remain a legitimate threat to the entire peace process and a necessary ‘evil’ that both the Israelis and the Palestinian Authority will be forced to

in Redefining security in the Middle East