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Timothy Longman

, such as military and government officials, while the research team established an office in Butare as a base for conducting local-level research. The team, which I joined in late 1995, focused on case studies of three local communities – the university town and regional capital Butare; Nyakizu, a commune south of Butare, along the Burundi border; and Musebeya, a commune in the neighbouring region of Gikongoro. We interviewed a range of individuals from each of the communities, including some in prison on genocide charges and many survivors of the genocide. We also

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War
Xavier Crombé and Joanna Kuper

, as Fabrice Weissman has shown ( Weissman, 2016 ), these quantitative studies offer little interpretation of violent incidents other than to say that they demonstrate a lack of respect for international humanitarian norms that require belligerents to protect and facilitate the provision of healthcare to the sick and wounded. They tend to reinforce the assumption, widely held among the aid community, that violence on health facilities and personnel is primarily, if not exclusively

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

dependency situation of the community… In this context, the Agency’s services are seen as a lifeline for the refugees’ ( UNGA WG, 2016 ). 5 To examine the implications of UNRWA’s operational shifts in such a context, I build upon my long-standing ethnographic research in and about the Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon and insights from an ongoing research project examining how the members of nine local communities – including Palestinian refugee communities – in Lebanon, Jordan and Turkey have been responding to the arrival and presence of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Model for Historical Reflection in the Humanitarian Sector
Kevin O’Sullivan and Réiseal Ní Chéilleachair

. Projects like these were vital in opening questions about institutional (and sectoral) memory and communities of practice. Equally significantly, they grew in tandem with a rich vein of historical research. Michael Barnett’s Empire of Humanity (2011) broke new ground, and it was followed by diverse new histories of humanitarianism, the development of new partnerships between NGOs and the writing of new histories of humanitarianism in places like Exeter, Galway, Geneva, London, Mainz

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Dispelling Misconceptions about Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in Conflict and Displacement
Heleen Touquet, Sarah Chynoweth, Sarah Martin, Chen Reis, Henri Myrttinen, Philipp Schulz, Lewis Turner, and David Duriesmith

evidence that sexual violence against men and boys by combatants is more prevalent than sexual violence committed by family and community members and other civilians. A focus on combatants replicates problematic approaches to violence against women and girls: initial assumptions that the majority of perpetrators in conflict-affected settings were ‘men with guns’ informed policies and responses that did not appropriately address the more prevalent

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Olivia Umurerwa Rutazibwa

humanitarian interventions. The topic was thrust upon me by events in Rwanda in 1994. As a teenage, second-generation Rwandan immigrant in Belgium, I was more personally affected than fellow classmates by the hypocrisy of the international community: the preaching of respect for human rights, followed by their omission during one hundred days of mass murder before the eyes of the world. It felt like there was more to the story than ‘good intentions versus regrettable outcomes’. Ever since, I have worried about the content and purpose of (Western

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Michaël Neuman, Fernando Espada, and Róisín Read

Most mainstream discourses on humanitarian security would not consider the community engagement of a team of anthropologists in three West African countries during the Ebola epidemic of 2014–16 as directly related to security – and their article in this special issue on ‘Security and Protection’ hardly touches on security as its own topic. Instead, it provides a detailed account of the need for a thorough understanding of social relationships when defining, and thus securing, humanitarian

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editors’ Introduction
Tanja R. Müller and Gemma Sou

to provide meaningful assistance to communities in crisis in the future. Scott-Smith’s paper shifts attention to humanitarian architecture, arguing that the humanitarian sector often relies on an uncritical technophilia, which fetishises objects rather than focusing on politics and process. Using shelter as his site of analysis, he suggests that ‘buildings without architecture’ are bound to fall short of the socio-spatial challenges of producing appropriate, diverse and affordable

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Lessons Learned for Engagement in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States
Logan Cochrane

, South Sudanese experienced widespread food insecurity, leading to emergency and famine conditions. The international community responded to the crises with humanitarian assistance. South Sudan has become one of the world’s largest humanitarian emergencies. Over the duration of the conflict, optimism and support of the international community shifted, to the extent that many donors were/are no longer willing to support the government. As violence escalated, the government and specific individuals were sanctioned. The Government of South Sudan (GoSS) responded with

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Nazanin Zadeh-Cummings and Lauren Harris

through a combination of political choices and repressive control, the DPRK has engineered a largely man-made (though also environmentally impacted) situation of humanitarian need. However, this does not absolve the organised international community from the humanitarian imperative to respond to suffering wherever it is found, or from ensuring the sanctions regime does not negatively impact aid. As the first point of the Red Cross and NGO Code of Conduct affirms: ‘The humanitarian imperative comes first …. As members of the international community, we recognise our

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs