appointed and dismissed cabinet members and
other officials of executive power. However, in other cases legislative
organs of power were required to give their approval for: chairs of the government (Adygeya, Bashkortostan, Dagestan, Ingushetiya, KarachaevoCherkesiya, Tatarstan, Mordoviya, Sakha, North Osetiya-Alaniya), first
deputy and/or deputy chiefs of executive power (Irkutsk, Saratov,
Karachaevo-Cherkessiya, Kareliya, Sakha, Tyva, Tambov oblast), all members of the government, ministers, and leaders of state committees
(Altai, Buryatiya, Tatarstan, Marii El
Dates of declarations of sovereignty
Date of declaration of sovereignty
July 20, 1990
August 9, 1990
August 15, 1990
August 29, 1990
August 30, 1990
September 20, 1990
September 27, 1990
October 8, 1990
October 11, 1990
October 18, 1990
October 22, 1990
October 24, 1990
October 25, 1990
November 1, 1990
November 17, 1990
not contradict the Constitution’.
Federalism and constitutional asymmetry
But these provisions are simply ignored in a number of republican
constitutions which defiantly proclaimed the supremacy of their constitutions over the Federal Constitution (e.g., article 7 of the Constitution of
Sakha, article 15 of Bashkortostan, article 1 of Tyva, article 1 of Dagestan,
and article 7 of Komi).24 Article 1 of Tyva’s Constitution stated that at
times of political or state crisis in the republic, the Republic’s Constitution
occasional skirmishes and, more importantly, signiﬁcant
uncertainty regarding Georgia’s ability to survive as an independent state.
It is obvious that the civil wars in Georgia in 1990–93 erupted as a consequence of the break-up of the USSR;1 however, in most Soviet constituent republics the inevitable destabilisation resulting from that cataclysm did not take such
violent forms. Many regions in Central Asia (the Fergana valley), in the North
Caucasus (Dagestan, see Chapter 6 in this volume) and in Georgia itself (Ajariya)
had explosive combinations of risk factors but
Representative: Army General Viktor Kazantsev.
District capital: Rostov-on-Don.
Republics of Adygeya, Chechnya, Dagestan, Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria,
Kalmykia, Karachaevo-Cherkessia and North Ossetia; Krasnodar and Stavropol
Krais; and Astrakhan, Rostov and Volgograd oblasts.
Presidential Representative: Colonel-General (Police) Peter Latyshev.
District capital: Yekaterinburg.
Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Sverdlovsk and Tyumen oblasts; and the Khanty-Mansii
and Yamal-Nenets autonomous okrugs.
Presidential Representative: Sergei Kirienko.