Sarah Orne Jewett, The Tory Lover, and Walter Scott, Waverley
Baym, American Women Writers, pp. 1–10.
Sir Walter Scott, Waverley, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1972, p. 492.
Letter to W.D. Howells, quoted in Donahue, ‘Introduction’, The Tory Lover,
p. viii. For information on Jewett’s family, see Blanchard, Sarah Orne Jewett,
Cairns Craig, Out of History: Narrative Patterns in Scottish and EnglishCulture, Edinburgh, Polygon, 1996, p. 71 (his emphasis).
Ina Ferris, ‘Story-telling and the Subversion of Literary Form in Walter
Scott’s Fiction’, in Shaw (ed.), Critical Essays, pp. 98 and 101. This may partly
radically, it marked the recognition that civilisation, the symbolic
ordering of human life, is power. Today, with the insights of
Gramsci and Foucault part of the common currency of at least some
domains of the academic intellectual culture, such notions trip easily
from the tongue. A generation ago this was not so. In the British case
– yet more if we were to think of the dominating position of
British masculinities, pomophobia, and the post-nation
postmodern? (1996: 24–5)
But pomophobia does not always of necessity manifest itself in crass,
catastrophically violent, fascistic reassertions of the ancient self/other
binary. Its presence may be latent in a culture as, I find, it is in Britain,
particularly in Englishculture but perhaps also, so I would like to argue,
in Scottish culture. Since the collapse of the Empire, the British nation
has been suffering from a severe cultural identity crisis, considerably
exacerbated by the fact that it now sees its socio-economic status, cultural prestige and national identity
generation whose insights would transform the lives
not only of their daughters and granddaughters, but of their sons and
1 Edmund Blunden, Undertones of War (London: Penguin, 2010 ): 46.
2 Paul Fussell, The Great War and Modern Memory (Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 2000 ). On soldiers’ writings, see also: Frank Field, British and
French Writers of the First World War (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1991); Samuel Hynes, A War Imagined: The First World War and EnglishCulture (London: Pimlico, 1992); Samuel Hynes, The Soldier
Empire, migration and the 1928 English Schoolgirl Tour
insight into the modernization of
imperialism and nationalism themselves. And upper-class Anglo-Celtic
femininity was an important part of such modernization. In Forever
England Alison Light shows, through literary sources, how
Englishculture and patriotism became bound up with domesticity and
‘the private’ at this time. 30 The tour was another
representation of such modernity
Appendix III of Instinct and the
Unconscious (p. 192).)
See Richard Slobodin’s biography, W. H. R. Rivers (Stroud, Sutton
Publishing, 1997), pp. 54–7.
Elaine Showalter, The Female Malady: Women, Madness and EnglishCulture, 1830–1980 (London, Virago, 1993), p. 174. Hereafter cited in the
text as Showalter.
See Pat Barker, The Eye in the Door (Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1993), pp.
The Good Soldier, pp. 25, 42. I think the sense of judgement or conscience
is implied here (conspicuous by its absence in a way), although what Ford
is actually referring to is the
thought and feeling’ which provided the roots
of what it was to be West Indian. 2
James wrote his history of the revolution in San Domingue,
The Black Jacobins , in 1938, after leaving Trinidad to live
in the metropole, the place where journalists and writers from the
colonies could hope to make a name for themselves. James was steeped in
Victorian Englishculture, and perhaps was expressing in this
’, he subsequently wrote, ‘that London is a cold
white city where Englishculture is great and formidable like an
iceberg. It is a city created for English needs, and admirable, no
doubt, for the English people. It was not built to accommodate Negroes.
I was very happy when I could get out of it to go back to the Negro pale
of America’, where life was more robust and less
writes, ‘Being black is warm
and gay, being white is cold and sad’. 76 The Caribbean is a place of scents
and colours; England a place of grey streets and dark houses. Englishculture is figured as machine-like, unfeeling, driven by money,
repressed. The Caribbean is sensuous, passionate, vibrant, spontaneous.
England, Teresa O’Connor has argued, is for Rhys male-dominated;
the Caribbean is largely
involved with, Europe: an ‘enemy within’. The crisis of
identity that now faced a generation of British-born West Indians, also
living within but apart from Englishculture, was CAM’s concern.
This proved true, and the special double issue of Savacou ,
‘Writing away from home’ (published in 1974 but three years
in the editing) is now recognised as the first anthology of black
British literature. 12