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Bureaucratic politics in EU aid – from the Lomé leap forward to the difficulties of adapting to the twenty-first century
Adrian Hewitt and Kaye Whiteman

the aid relationship he became the paymaster of several French parties. In the 1990s Omar Bongo wrote that in the 1960s he had asked General de Gaulle why he was so reticent about British entry (‘mais pourquoi, mon Général?’). The General replied ‘It is because of you others, the francophone Africans. For you in this affair of the European Community, everything happens pro rata because of demography, so when you see the giants, Nigeria, Tanzania, Kenya beside Gabon, one must be vigilant’ (Bongo 90, 1994). India, Pakistan, Malaysia, and even the later poverty

in EU development cooperation
Open Access (free)
The French search mission for the corpses of deportees in Germany, 1946–58
Jean-Marc Dreyfus

by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, European Department – Central Europe Division at the embassy of Bad Godesberg, regarding the problems of maintenance of civil and military war graves after the contractual agreements came into force on 1 December 1953. Jean Sauvagnargues, 1915–2002. A former student at the École Normale Supérieure, and member of the Foreign Office, Sauvagnargues joined France Libre in 1943. He was a member of Général de Gaulle’s cabinet during the Liberation, Director of German and Austrian Affairs at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Minister of

in Human remains and mass violence
Open Access (free)
The ‘revolutionary journées’ of 13 May 1958
Neil Macmaster

underlying political meaning and purpose. The aim of the military and Gaullist organisers of the ‘13 May’ coup was to force Pierre Pflimlin, who had been invested as Prime Minister by the National Assembly early in the morning of 14 May, to stand down in favour of General de Gaulle. However, there was no rapid resolution of a crisis that appeared to be slipping dangerously towards civil war: the Pflimlin government began to take military steps to protect Paris, while de Gaulle remained evasive, refusing to respond to the call of the Algiers plotters by openly agreeing to

in Burning the veil
Neil Macmaster

was not lost on General de Gaulle whose political career as national leader of the French Resistance was founded on his famous appeal from London on 18 June 1940. In 1959 Frantz Fanon published his famous essay, ‘Here is the Voice of Algeria’, in which he argued that radio, particularly in the form of the new, portable transistor, represented a revolutionary tool for the nationalist movement.51 Fanon argued that until the War of Independence Radio-Alger was a ‘transmission belt for the colonial power’ and was produced for a predominantly European settler audience

in Burning the veil
Army wives and domesticating the ‘native’
Neil Macmaster

clandestine, presence inside the township: for example, Husson reported in August 1958 that the local mosque had been closed down by the army for several months as a ‘disciplinary sanction’. Two soldiers were usually placed to guard MSF Committee meetings, and on the eve of the important referendum vote on 28 September the FLN carried out an attack in which one sentry was severely wounded. At a big meeting of the MSF on 9 October the commander asked the Algerian women if they had any requests, and one had the courage to ask that General de Gaulle should liberate their men

in Burning the veil
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

This section provides, in the style of a dictionary, explanations of significant political events, groupings and developments.

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

France at age 19. He later graduated in politics and took a doctorate in law at 21. Politically active from an early age, he joined the Radical Party at 16. In 1932 he became the youngest Deputy in the Parliament and in 1938, as Under-Secretary of State for the Treasury, the youngest member of a government in the Third Republic. Falsely charged with desertion during the Second World War, he escaped from prison to England, joined General de

in The politics today companion to West European Politics