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Raymond Hinnebusch

from the 1973 war and the oil embargo out of the weakness to be acclaimed as a ‘hero of peace’. He personalised relations between states, naively convinced that his embrace of American leaders, including his ‘friend Henry’ (Kissinger), would be enough to change America’s pro-Israeli policy. His eagerness to jettison Soviet support and rely totally on American diplomacy was an eccentrically personal choice that appalled his professional foreign policy advisors. To Sadat, the Russians were ‘crude and tasteless people’ while Egypt’s alienation from the US was unnatural

in The international politics of the Middle East
Joshua B. Spero

Security, 25:3 (2000/01), pp. 128–61, esp. p. 159; and Gideon Rose, ‘Neoclassical Realism and Theories of Foreign Policy’, World Politics, 51:1 (1998), pp. 144–72. Mark Kramer, ‘Neorealism, Nuclear Proliferation, and East-Central European Strategies’, in Ethan B. Kapstein and Michael Mastanduno (eds), Unipolar Politics: Realism and State Strategies After the Cold War (New York: Columbia University 181 2504Chap9 7/4/03 12:41 pm Page 182 Institutions of security governance Press, 1999), pp. 428, 437–8, 462. 15 For a survey of assessments of the PfP, see Henry

in Limiting institutions?
Open Access (free)
The restructuring of work and production in the international political economy
Louise Amoore

: 2). The state and corporate actors Strange positions in relationships of ‘triangular diplomacy’ are presented as ‘managers’ of globalisation, resonant with Charlotte Hooper’s ‘frontier masculinity’ in which business solutions are sought for global dilemmas (Hooper, 2000: 67; see also Hooper, 2001). Diplomatic practices, espionage and the activities of statesmen have defined what Hooper terms ‘hegemonic masculinities’ that now merge with business discourses to create images such as that of James Bond and Henry Kissinger ‘sitting next to an Economist reading

in Globalisation contested
Still unique or just one in the crowd?
Karen E. Smith

–ACP relationship is losing its uniqueness, this chapter examines the evolution of the Union’s policies towards the five regions. Firstly it notes the expansion of the Union’s commitments, globally and in the EU’s neighbourhood, and sets out the key reasons behind this expansion. It then analyses why and how there has been change in the Union’s relations with each of the five regions. The end of the Cold War: geography as determinant of foreign policy? In 1973 the Community member states took offence when Henry Kissinger, in his infamous ‘Year of Europe’ speech (Nuttall, 1992: 86

in EU development cooperation
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

. It is quite capable of defeating the threats to it that are apparent in the twenty-first century. REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING 1 David Held, ‘Democracy: From City-states to a Cosmopolitan Order’, Political Studies , 11 (1992), pp. 10–39. 2 Apocryphal reference. 3 Henry Kissinger, US Secretary

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Martha Graham, dance and politics
Dana Mills

dance artist to represent the US on those tours was José Limón, who went to Latin America in 1954 (Prevots 2001). Martha Graham was one of the most prominent artists to take an active part in this programme. Clare Croft, who has written extensively about dance and cultural diplomacy in the US, argues that Graham was defined as a ‘grand lady of dance’ in a memo sent in 1974 from Henry Kissinger to Gerald Ford (Croft 2015:  105). But Graham’s centrality in American dance predated the State tours. The State Department consequently assumed she had international value

in Dance and politics
Open Access (free)
Recovery and hubris; effervescence in the East
Kjell M. Torbiörn

materialise. The price hikes of the OPEC (Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries) oil cartel – termed ‘the moral equivalent of war’ by the then US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger – were more a healthy reminder to the industrialised countries that they could not go on wasting energy in the way they had been up until then. The truth of the adage ‘a barrel of oil saved is a barrel of oil produced’ began to sink in, leading to companies and individuals starting to economise on an asset previously taken as both cheap and inexhaustible – in the form of less energy

in Destination Europe
Jonathan Colman

exchanges before our statement was made’. 80 Wilson’s effort to establish a close relationship with Nixon enjoyed only limited success, because no real rapport ever emerged between the two leaders. For example, Wilson suggested after their first handshake that they should address each other by their first names. Nixon’s National Security Adviser, Henry Kissinger, noted that ‘A fishy-eyed stare from Nixon squelched this idea’. 81

in A ‘special relationship’?
Open Access (free)
The international system and the Middle East
Raymond Hinnebusch

them. To get even small Israeli concessions, such as acceptance of the Rogers Plan, the US had to pledge ever more support to Israel (Walt 1987: 108–10). Israel’s arms dependency gave the US little leverage over it owing to the Israelis’ penetration of US domestic politics and a tacit threat to escalate the conflict or even to ‘go nuclear’ if the US abandoned them (Evron 1973: 178–80). President Nixon and his Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger, developed a strategy that would make a virtue of Washington’s weak leverage over Israel: by keeping Israel too strong to be

in The international politics of the Middle East
Explaining foreign policy variation
Raymond Hinnebusch

of these origins. Thereafter, commonly experienced systemic forces seemed to divert them on to the same road toward moderation. They shared the defeat of 1967 and the rise to power, in reaction, of newly ‘pragmatic’ leaders – Sadat and Asad – in 1970. Both initiated limited liberalisation at home and inter-Arab détente abroad. Together they launched the October 1973 war and together they started on the path of post-war negotiations with Israel. Together – and only together – they might have reached a comprehensive Middle East peace for, as Henry Kissinger remarked

in The international politics of the Middle East