See, for example, J.R. Searle, The Construction
of Social Reality (Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1995), pp. 26–8,
And they may not be unaware. There are witting as
well as unwitting cliques. Cf. Graham, Practical Reasoning in a
Social World , ch. 3, s. 2
2003), ch. 2.
G.C. MacCallum, jr, ‘Negative and Positive
Freedom’, Philosophical Review , 76 (1967), pp.
312–34, reprinted in D. Miller (ed.), Liberty (Oxford,
Oxford University Press, 1991). The real origin of the idea of freedom
as a triadic relation is F. Oppenheim, Dimensions of Freedom: An
Analysis (New York, St. Martin
united front as they appealed to farmers’ patriotism to utilise their resources to the greatest national advantage. The IAOS and DATI issued complementary public notices to farmers to conserve food and offered instructions on issues such as vegetable cultivation, crop rotation and directions to maximise production. J.R. Campbell, Assistant Secretary for Agriculture at the DATI, urged farmers to concentrate upon tillage farming and increased efforts to extend dairying in Ireland to cover winter months. 18
The IAOS's ability to provide targeted
Secretary-General as a Force in World
Politics (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 1983 ), p. 95.
T. M. Franck and J. Carey, ‘Working paper:
the role of the United Nations in the Congo – a retrospective
perspective’, in L. Tondel Jr. (ed.), The Legal Aspects of
the United Nations Action in the Congo (New York: Oceana
highly critical of NATO involvement in Bosnia; see V.
Peresada, ‘Unprecedented NATO military action in
Balkans’, Pravda (6 April 1993) reproduced in The
Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press , 45:14 (5 May 1993),
See, for instance, the statement by D. Bennet,
Jr., US Assistant Secretary
Juvenile actors and humanitarian sentiment in the 1940s
such films would require
a new style of juvenile performance. 42 But if Temple had provided the dominant model of the
accomplished and irresistible child star during the 1930s, then the
children who featured most prominently in Hollywood productions of the
early to mid 1940s – Margaret O’Brien, Roddy McDowall, Peggy Ann Garner,
Claude Jarman Jr, Elizabeth Taylor – were celebrated for their
Daggett Harvey, Chicago, to Sargent Shriver,
Incoming Mail Briefs, Box 1.
See, for example, Benny A. Gonzalez to Mr.
Shriver, 12 June 1961; Kenneth N. Harlan, Jr., to Mr. Shriver, 1
August 1961; James Pastena to Peace Corps, 7 March 1961, Incoming
Mail Briefs 1961–1963, Box 1
50 IAOS, Annual Report, 1901 , 16.
51 Líam Kennedy, ‘Farmers, Traders and Agricultural Politics in Pre-Independence Ireland’, in Irish Peasants: Violence and Political Unrest, 1780–1914, ed. by James S. Donnelly Jr and Samuel Clark (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1983), 339–373.
52 IAOS, Annual Report, 1904 , 25.
53 IAOS, Annual Report, 1895 , 5.
54 Lionel Smith-Gordon and Laurence C. Staples, Rural Reconstruction in Ireland: A Record of Co
This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the
subsequent chapters of this book. The book argues that there is not a single
principle of democratic inclusion but several principles, and that it is
important to distinguish their different roles in relation to democratic
boundaries. It considers the general "circumstances of democracy" that
consist in normative background assumptions and general empirical conditions
under which democratic self-government is both necessary and possible. The
book discusses the principles of including all affected interests (AAI), all
subject to coercion (ASC) and all citizenship stakeholders (ACS). It
contextualizes the principle of stakeholder inclusion, which provides the
best answer to the question of democratic boundaries of membership, by
applying it to polities of different types. The book distinguishes state,
local and regional polities and also argues that they differ in their