an organisation, the EDL makes for a slippery object of study. This, it has
been argued here, is not only because of the diversity within its ranks but because
the movement is constituted in reflexive engagement with its own external representation. This representation as racist (as well as thuggish, drunken and uneducated) is a constant concern of activists. At one level these mediarepresentations
of the movement confirm a sense of victim status and ‘conspiracy’ between political and cultural elites to silence ‘ordinary’ voices and concerns; in this sense they
followed beyond the point at which
the governing bodies introduce the new technology, to examine how the
new assemblage affects other, often unexpected, parts of the
Chapter 7 considers one of the most
important relationships within sport: the sport media connection.
However, this chapter is different from much of the other literature
written on the topic as it focuses not on mediarepresentations but on
the processes by which these representations are produced. It considers
how humans and
Kosovo war, which amounted to nothing more
than a video-sequence, a computer game, a PR campaign, or at the very least
a military parade, to be consumed by a (mainly) Western audience. On the other hand, the ‘new’ discourse of
European security that reveals itself through numerous mediarepresentations
is in fact a traditional discourse of power akin to the Christian white
man’s discourse that has guided Western colonisation for the last 500
Jaspal, R., and Nerlich, B. (2014). When climate science became climate
politics: British mediarepresentations of climate change in 1988. Public
Understanding of Science, 23(2), 122–141.
Jaspal, R., Nerlich, B., and Cinnirella, M. (2014). Human responses to climate
change: Social representation, identity and socio-psychological action.
Environmental Communication, 8(1), 110–130.
An Inconvenient Truth
Jaspal, R., Nerlich, B., and Koteyko, N. (2013). Contesting science by appealing
to its norms: Readers discuss climate science in the Daily Mail. Science
Marie Beauchamps, Marijn Hoijtink, Matthias Leese, Bruno Magalhães, and Sharon Weinblum
Athens in 2011. He focuses on the mediarepresentations of
the occupation of the building and the discursive construction of threats
around the hunger strike. Notably, the construction of threat images turns
out to be closely related to the university and the Law School building –
both as an institution and as a concrete building – the prestige of which
was presented to be endangered.
Similar themes, although concerning a
to detach mediarepresentations from external reality and create instead
a system of self-referential commodified signs.
Yet, the media are powerful in structuring political
actions. Among politicians and analysts alike, there is a sense of the
increased importance of real-time television in particular. Also, in
Boutros-Ghali’s story, the media appear constantly to have been
setting the stage for
Pollution, contamination and the neglected dead in post-war Saigon
imagined to reside and roam.9
As opposed to the notion of cemeteries as resting places after a
long and eventful life, this ‘dead zone’ threatens and undermines the
very image of ‘good death’ and peaceful eternity (Bloch and Parry
1982: 15; Kwon 2006: 12–16). Other images and other thoughts
come to mind anxiously. As we saw with Lam and her father, one
witnesses and, on the basis of mediarepresentations, one imagines
crime, gambling and prostitution taking place in these graveyards –
forms of excessive social behaviours and transgressive exchange that
Spanish Civil War (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995). Susan Faludi,
The Terror Dream: What 9/11 Revealed About America (London: Atlantic
Books, 2008) analyses the surge in mediarepresentations of virility after the
perceived humiliation of the terrorist attack on the ‘homeland’.
Virgili, Shorn Women; Michael Kelly, ‘The Reconstruction of Masculinity at
the Liberation’ and Corran Laurens, ‘ “La Femme au turban”: les femmes
tondues’, in Kedward and Wood (eds), Liberation of France, 117–28,
155–79; Luc Capdevila, ‘The Quest for Masculinity in a Defeated
later on as well.
Furthermore, they discuss what has come to be known as
‘Augusta National syndrome’, the
‘affliction’ whereby golfers expect perfectly green
playing conditions without fail, having been exposed to mediarepresentations of these same conditions on TV. Golf’s
relationship to media and, more broadly, consumer culture is indeed
crucial in affecting the shaping and treatment of the sport’s
Even with these initial critical studies of golf in
tow, it is fair
. An Introduction to its Methodology
(Thousand Oaks: Sage, 2004).
S. Hilton, K. Hunt, M. Langan, H. Bedford and M.
Petticrew, ‘Newsprint MediaRepresentations of the Introduction of the
HPV Vaccination Programme for Cervical Cancer Prevention in the UK
(2005–2008)’, Social Science & Medicine , 70 (2010),