Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

Second World War. The term originated in France, where General Pétain of the Vichy government announced that he would ‘enter into the way of collaboration’ in October 1940. After the liberation of France in 1944 the tide turned against collaborators. It was rumoured that over 100,000 were executed, although estimates now suggest a figure of some 10,000. There was no thorough purge of public officials needed to lead France

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Open Access (free)
Jonathan Atkin

fighting for.’15 Kathleen Burke, who visited the French front as an observer, proudly explained to General Petain how a pre-war political society, the Scottish branch of the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies, had, ‘with that splendid spirit of patriotism which had from the first day of the war animated every man, woman and child of Great Britain’, organised itself into the Scottish Women’s Hospital movement.16 However, even seemingly clear cases of simple, patriotic motivation could be muddied by conscience. The restless journeys for Mrs Alec-Tweedie were

in A war of individuals
Christine E. Hallett

de Guerre in March, and now a ‘palm’ was added, and was conferred on her by General Pétain in person. A few days 55 Independent ladies after this, she was rushed to hospital in Dunkirk  – an event that is shrouded in secrecy, but appears to have been due to a miscarriage. A long period of ill health followed, which was complicated by severe pneumonia. Borden attempted to continue working but was obliged to take frequent breaks to rest and convalesce. In February 1918, she suffered another miscarriage.49 In the summer of 1917, Borden published some short journal

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Open Access (free)
Liberation, remembering and forgetting
James E. Connolly

and film of the liberation of Lille and other towns corroborate this, demonstrating the extent of locals’ sentiments (see Figures 8–​10).22 Similar scenes occurred throughout the Nord, notably in Valenciennes, Roubaix, Tourcoing and Maubeuge.23 Official celebrations began straight away, including military parades by the liberating armies, exchanging honours and celebratory discourses, and visits to key towns by the President and Prime Minister, such as those mentioned in the opening lines of this book. Marshalls Pétain and Foch, and King George V also visited the

in The experience of occupation in the Nord, 1914– 18
Open Access (free)
Rodney Barker

, coherent with, rather than symbolic or expressive of, some other identity. To threaten a person's diet can be a major threat to his or her identity. In Vichy France, alienation from the Pétain regime and support for armed opposition greatly increased when the regime contaminated wine in June 1943 as part of their policy of requisitioning wine for fuel alcohol. Lucie Aubrac's description of vintage in defence of national identity adds one more dimension to the understanding of the Maquis: ‘More than any rational arguments, more than any patriotic explanation, these

in Cultivating political and public identity