This book examines the relationship between environmental justice and citizen
science, focusing on enduring issues and new challenges in a post-truth
age. Debates over science, facts, and values have always been pivotal within
environmental justice struggles. For decades, environmental justice activists
have campaigned against the misuses of science, while at the same time engaging
in community-led citizen science. However, post-truth politics
has threatened science itself. This book makes the case for the importance of
science, knowledge, and data that are produced by and for ordinary people living
with environmental risks and hazards. The international, interdisciplinary
contributions range from grassroots environmental justice struggles in American
hog country and contaminated indigenous communities, to local environmental
controversies in Spain and China, to questions about “knowledge justice,”
citizenship, participation, and data in citizen science surrounding
toxicity. The book features inspiring studies of community-based participatory
environmental health and justice research; different ways of sensing,
witnessing, and interpreting environmental injustice; political strategies for
seeking environmental justice; and ways of expanding the concepts and forms of
engagement of citizen science around the world. While the book will be of
critical interest to specialists in social and environmental sciences, it will
also be accessible to graduate and postgraduate audiences. More broadly, the
book will appeal to members of the public interested in social justice issues,
as well as community members who are thinking about participating in citizen
science and activism. Toxic Truths includes distinguished contributing authors
in the field of environmental justice, alongside cutting-edge research from
emerging scholars and community activists.
Transnational reflections from Brazilians in London and Maré, Rio de Janeiro
Cathy McIlwaine, Miriam Krenzinger, Yara Evans, and Eliana Sousa Silva
an empty room, throwing her on the bed and throttling her while sexually assaulting her, before she managed to escape. Beyond the workplace, other public places where GBV occurred included cafés and bars (16 per cent), publictransport (10 per cent) and public areas (10 per cent). In Maré, local public spaces (18 per cent) and the streets of the community (10 per cent) were the most commonly identified places where GBV occurred, with only 5 per cent of instances occurring in the workplace and 1 per cent on publictransport. The latter might be explained by high
Inclusive urban energy transformations in spaces of urban
Federico Caprotti, Jon Phillips, Saska Petrova, Stefan Bouzarovski, Stephen Essex, Jiska de Groot, Lucy Baker, Yachika Reddy, and Peta Wolpe
’. These settlements were characterised by little or no service provision by municipalities, were generally outside areas with economic opportunities and were poorly connected by publictransport (Knox et al., 2017 ). While electrification has extended access to modern energy services, some areas remain unconnected or inhabitants do not have the ability to pay for the electricity supplied. In these cases, illegal connections and/or the continued use of traditional fuels thwart universal energy access, let alone a managed low-carbon energy transformation
In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.
, an artist and an astute reader and decipherer of the rapidly changing urban and social landscape, the flâneur was a focal point of much of the urban literature on Paris, as well as of contemporary scholarly commentary on it.
In the section of The Arcades Project devoted to the rich archive of nineteenth-century flâneur writing, Walter Benjamin was the first to implicitly suggest a deep link between this figure, the act of urban strolling and the experience of publictransport. Over fifteen references to the Parisian omnibus appear in the ‘Flâneur’ section
by law in such industries as coal, steel, electricity, telephones, gas and water supply. After privatisation, therefore, there remained the problem of how to ensure that the industries remained competitive when they did not have to contend with normal
market forces. Two kinds of response were introduced.
The first was simply to introduce competition: to allow other private firms to
compete. This is what occurred with British Airways, municipal publictransport, and steel and coal. In other industries, however, competition was
not feasible at first. These are the
Learning from communities in informal settlements in Durban, South
Maria Christina Georgiadou and Claudia Loggia
schemes. There are also subsidised houses in urban townships, informal backyard shacks adjacent to formal housing on both public and privately owned land, and rural housing dwellings. Some of the negative consequences of spatial fragmentation and low-density include an inefficient publictransport system with high transport costs per low-income household, inefficient infrastructure and overall environmental pollution (eThekwini Municipality, 2016 ).
Definitions of informal settlements
Informal settlements are defined by physical
the spring of 2001); the closure of rural schools and post offices
(previously endorsed by many Conservatives on the grounds of cost-effectiveness and lack of economic viability); the paucity of publictransport in
rural areas (particularly in the wake of deregulation or privatisation of
transport, whereupon many rural routes were deemed ‘not commercially
viable’); the high cost of housing in many villages, which many younger
people raised in them cannot afford, in which case they often move away,
leaving the villages either to atrophy, or be ‘colonised’ by former
imperatives of getting by through trade that often had to be conducted in English, created cultural and linguistic interdependencies that rubbed uncomfortably alongside national and local understandings of race, difference and belonging.
While my fieldwork mainly took place at these market sites, I also ended up making notes on things that I witnessed and took part in during marches and protests; community events; and, as I went about my regular life in the city, doing my shopping, hanging out with friends and travelling on publictransport. The kinds of vivacious and
-Caribbean descent, a few residents from the
Indian sub-continent and groups of Chinese immigrants, but they had been
insignificant in size or impact. Then everything began to change in the second
half of the 1950s.
The first significant wave of non-white immigration occurred in the 1950s.
This was a time of full employment and there were significant shortages of
labour in such fields as the health service and publictransport. To meet the
shortages, the government introduced a system of subsidised immigration,
most from the West Indies. With expenses paid, the new immigrants were