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Robert Mackay

per month was a tiresome constraint on social activity. Since this minority came mainly from the articulate middle classes, who had greater access to the media, its views tended to be heard more at the time and to survive disproportionately in the record. But when most people travelled it was by public transport. Here the effect of the war was simply to reduce the number of buses and trains available. Conscription reduced the workforce of busdrivers, conductors and maintenance workers; the conversion of the motor industry to the production of military vehicles and

in Half the battle
David Larsson Heidenblad

high as what ‘an ethically honourable working-class family has to manage on’. What was more, he drove a car to work instead of travelling by public transport. Should he be doing that? Cars spread toxic exhaust fumes. Were cars not more dangerous to the environment than the occasional associate professor doing a bit of work on the side for industry? 30 This caustic onslaught on Palmstierna in Expressen was not an isolated phenomenon. That same day, the liberal paper Göteborgs-Posten characterized him as a ‘sideways

in The environmental turn in postwar Sweden
George Campbell Gosling

case of Bristol. The absence of ‘gas and water’ socialism – with municipal control of utilities providing a bedrock – did not equate to a lack of provision in the city. Utilities, like other core services such as public transport, were provided by private companies. 4 Meanwhile, charitable provision was extensive, including schools, settlements and almshouses, as well as dispensaries and hospitals. Consequently, Bristol was a city associated with philanthropists

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48
Neil Macmaster

interior, the more tenuous French authority became, while inversely the local power of the FLN maquis increased along with cultural resistance to the new Ordinance. The problems were particularly pronounced among the conservative populations of the vast southern departments of the Sahara and Saoura. Here it was reported that so few Muslim courts (mahakma) and mayor’s offices existed that the inhabitants of places like Reggan or Tindouf could be a thousand kilometres distant, and in the absence of any forms of public transport it was almost impossible to register births

in Burning the veil