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Andrea Ballabeni and Davide Danovi

9 Advocating a radical change in policies and new models to secure freedom and efficiency in funding and communication of science1 Andrea Ballabeni and Davide Danovi A moving landscape Threats and obstructions to scientific freedom, fairness and efficiency are commonly perceived as surrounding the scientific world. However, bottlenecks can also occur from within the system itself as some of the current regulations and forces shaping research (referred to here as ‘science policies’) substantially decrease the freedom and motivation of scientists. Indeed

in The freedom of scientific research
The quest for the right to science
Marco Cappato

on civil liberties (on the relationship between democracy and scientific freedom, see Chapter 13 in this volume). Strengthening international instruments and mechanisms to affirm the right to science, and to free up the use of narcotics and other psychoactive substances in respectable scientific laboratories, could thus contribute both to science and to the protection of human rights, democracy and the rule of law. References Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (1979), Report on a Review of the Classification of Controlled Drugs and of Penalties under Schedules

in The freedom of scientific research
Martin D. Moore

–1914’, Journal of Contemporary History , 20:4 (1985), 503–20. 36 D. L. Brick, J. Brick, and J. W. Richardson, ‘Fining the doctor’, BMJ , 2:4902, S.233 (1954), 241. 37 Though perhaps one explanation for the divergence between practice and responses lay in the connections between voluntary institutions and autonomy in the professional imagination: S. Hastings, ‘Scientific freedom and social medicine’, BMJ , 1:4290 (1943), 392–3. 38 ‘Administration of special departments’, BMJ , 2:4784, S.2486 (1952

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine
The origins and endurance of club regulation
Duncan Wilson

involved the arrest and execution of scientists opposed to Trofim Lysenko, who fraudulently claimed to have perfected a way of increasing crop yields and transmitting acquired characteristics to later generations.88 Supporters of scientific freedom argued that the collapse of Soviet genetics and agriculture proved just how harmful external interference was for science. Support for club regulation was strengthened further during the 1950s, thanks to advances in biological and medical research such as the development of effective anti-tuberculosis drugs, open-heart surgery

in The making of British bioethics
Curse or blessing?
Simona Giordano

alchemists, particularly the Chinese alchemists in the fourth and third century bc). In some sense, it may be argued that much, if not all, scientific effort is ultimately meant to prolong human life, the life of the planet, to give humans and perhaps other living beings the best chance to live as well as possible for the longest time, hopefully forever. Many of those who defend scientific freedom do so in the name of human welfare, longevity and freedom from illness and disability (see Chapter 15 in this volume). The longing for immortality is obviously the other face of

in The freedom of scientific research
Johan Östling

democracy was to safeguard scholarly and scientific freedom. After a few years, however, interest in the forum cooled significantly, and in 1949 the discussions in Marburg took place for the last time.11 Under British guidance, a commission was set up which mainly consisted of reform-minded German academics. They visited most universities in the three western zones, and in 1948 they presented a comprehensive reform proposal, the so-called ‘Gutachten zur Hochschulreform’ (literally ‘experts’ report concerning the reform of higher education’). In the ‘Blaues Gutachten

in Humboldt and the modern German university
Open Access (free)
Johan Östling

lofty as those once championed by the German university, argued Habermas.108 Hochschule in der Demokratie discussed the university’s organisation and place in society, along with democracy and scholarly-scientific freedom, the university’s ideology, and the situation of the students. A concluding excursus was devoted to ‘Women and the university’, as though this were a marginal topic. The authors’ relationship to the German university tradition became particularly obvious in an introductory historical chapter and in the third part of the book. Like the text from 1961

in Humboldt and the modern German university