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The analytical framework
Eşref Aksu

would be likely to press for a specific course of UN action. Those which supply personnel for a given UN peacekeeping operation would also require attention, since they could exert influence both in the peacekeeping theatre and on the floor of the General Assembly. Regional IGOs almost always express opinions as to how intra-state conflicts in their respective regions should be handled and

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Problematising the normative connection
Eşref Aksu

assume a special identity and role in world politics. A closer examination of the evolution of UN peacekeeping in intra-state conflicts – especially between the two most active and critical periods of UN peacekeeping: the early 1960s and the early 1990s – suggests that the role assigned to the UN in intra-state conflict management begs more than the explanations offered so far. It suggests in the first

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Eşref Aksu

T HE CYPRUS CONFLICT , too, emerged out of a colonial context. In Cyprus, some 6,500 peacekeepers were deployed at a time when, as a result of the Congo experience, several international actors were sceptical of UN peacekeeping. 1 As of 2002, the Cyprus mission was still continuing. However, its nature had changed considerably since the Turkish intervention in 1974

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Impact of structural tensions and thresholds
Eşref Aksu

intervention in Guatemala in 1954 and the Soviet intervention in Hungary in 1956. 49 Strategic bipolarity would make it practically impossible for the UN to intervene in conflicts, be they inter- or intra-state, if they were located within the US and Soviet spheres of influence, or in some way cut across the interests and priorities of either Washington or Moscow. The idea of UN peacekeeping matured almost at

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Eşref Aksu

OAU’s and SWAPO’s main concern was that the elections should be free and fair. The answer would be to strengthen the role played by the UN which should assume legal responsibility for the territory during the transition period. UN administrative staff would need to replace the South Africans and the local authorities. According to Vance, Nyerere insisted that there should be a large UN peacekeeping force and that

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Adjusting to life after the Cold War
Kerry Longhurst

Bundeswehr’s role. The UNTAC mission to Cambodia in May 1992, with around 140 Bundeswehr soldiers, saw Germany participating actively in a UN peacekeeping mission, and with the opposition’s approval. The Cambodia deployment signified Germany’s growing willingness to shoulder part of the security burden and was viewed by the new Defence Minister Longhurst, Germany and the use of force.qxd 60 30/06/2004 16:25 Page 60 Germany and the use of force Volker Rühe as ‘ein Beitrag zu einem neuen Kapitel deutscher Verantwortung’ (a contribution to a new chapter in German

in Germany and the use of force
Catherine Baker

suddenly ascribed ex-Yugoslavs the same status as Africans (i.e. objects of pity and mistrusted visa nationals) on to the figure of the African peacekeeper. In April 1995, negotiating a post-war UN peacekeeping mandate, the Croatian government was forced to deny reports it had insisted on no African or Asian states participating (O'Shea 2005 : 145). Bangladesh, Pakistan, India and Malaysia had been among the larger United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) contributors in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, and UNPROFOR's first commander (a public figure) was an Indian

in Race and the Yugoslav region
Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

185 22/9/03, 1:53 pm 186 12 13 14 15 16 MUP_Torbion_08_Ch8 Destination Europe fied the Clinton administration’s signature of the ICC Treaty and announced that it would not send it for ratification to the Senate. It even threatened to withdraw from UN peacekeeping operations such as in Bosnia, unless the UN Security Council guaranteed that no US soldier would be brought before the ICC over alleged war crimes. A compromise was eventually reached for a suspension of the threatened action. A dispute with the EU over the issue was at least temporarily resolved

in Destination Europe
Matthew S. Weinert

both (e.g. apartheid South Africa, Southern Rhodesia, North Korea, Libya, Iraq, Iran), the sovereign prerogatives of which have been stripped away or significantly curtailed. Failing states with substantial UN peacekeeping and peace-enforcement operations (e.g. Somalia, the Democratic Republic of Congo) occupy a lower-middle tier, while countries administered by the United

in Recognition and Global Politics
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

. Peacebuilding strategies, however, have not been external to these processes. The UN and the contradictions of peacebuilding The UN’s peacebuilding strategies in the DRC are more reflective of the evolution of frameworks for conflict resolution than of the actual evolution of the conflict. Having been reluctant to intervene for a number of years, the UN turned the DRC into one of the first ‘laboratories’ for post-conflict statebuilding (Zeebroek 2008). After the more significant deployment of UN peacekeeping forces in 2001, the two missions – MONUC (until 2010) and MONUSCO

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making