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Reinterpreting Russia in the twenty-first century

. Because this isn’t just about Ukraine, it’s about Russia and its future intentions, about its apparent aspiration to exercise control over the former Soviet republics which were liberated by the collapse of the USSR in 1989 – an event we celebrate, but which President Putin describes as the greatest geopolitical catastrophe of the twentieth century. 2

in The new politics of Russia

enormously, from that of material evidence to that of simple detritus. In this respect, the example of the violence perpetrated in the Soviet period is particularly revealing in a number of ways. A long-lived and lethal institution It is important to note from the outset that the deployment of violence through the gulag occurred on a historical, geographical and sociological scale that has rarely been equalled. The concentration camps which were first set up in the early months of the Bolshevik regime and subsequently spread across Russia and throughout the USSR would

in Human remains and mass violence
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Corruption breeds violence

7 Civil wars in Georgia: corruption breeds violence Pavel K. Baev Introduction    incredibly rich and uniquely complicated case for the analysis of modern civil wars. It is a newly independent state that appeared with the collapse of the USSR, but it also has a long history of statehood. It is a relatively small state, but it occupies a key geopolitical crossroads which has acquired strategic importance with the new development of hydrocarbon resources in the Caspian area. Its population is small and declining but the ethnic composition, cultural

in Potentials of disorder
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‘We’ve moved on’

‘We’ve moved on.’ This apparently simple phrase, often uttered by officials and commentators on both sides since 1991, captures the evolving ambiguity of the relationship between the West and Russia. One (early) interpretation offered the more positive view that both sides have moved on from the confrontation of the Cold War: Russia is very different from the USSR, the

in The new politics of Russia
Weak empire to weak nation-state around Nagorno-Karabakh

8 The art of losing the state: weak empire to weak nation-state around Nagorno-Karabakh Jan Koehler and Christoph Zürcher The conflict around Nagorno-Karabakh offers an insight into the rules and processes that governed the transformation of a weak empire into even weaker nation-states. More than other conflicts escalating into collective violence during the demise of the USSR, Nagorno-Karabakh had connotations of civil and interstate war, heavily involved official central and local Soviet institutions and led to the creation of new local institutions. The Nagorno

in Potentials of disorder
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maintaining NATO’s integrity and protecting Britain’s sovereign bases. Washington’s thinking On learning of the coup, Kissinger chaired a session of the WSAG.58 Confusion reigned as to what had actually occurred in Cyprus, and it was still unclear as 04_Strained_partnership_128-174.indd 135 06/11/2013 13:50 136 A strained partnership? to what had triggered the hostilities. US policy-makers, however, were deeply concerned about the probable actions of the USSR.59 ‘I think our first objective should be to prevent any kind of Soviet action. We must keep this as an

in A strained partnership?

fascism, including nazism. More particularly, it has been employed as a legitimising principle and integrative idea by communist organisations and regimes, including the Soviet occupation regime in Germany and the GDR, based on the idea that fascism had been defeated primarily by the USSR and communist resisters elsewhere. In the GDR, non-communist political parties and social organisations such as the trade union and youth associations were

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
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form through the period of the united/popular front against fascism, 1935–39, returning with renewed vigour in August 1939 after the conclusion of the Ribbentrop–Molotov Pact until Hitler’s invasion of the USSR in June 1941. For the rest of the Second World War, most social democrats repressed or even discarded their belief in the existence of M1738 - CALLAGHAN TEXT.indd 287 3/8/09 12:13:46 288 Afterword an unbridgeable divide between social democracy and communism. They worked closely with communists in resistance movements in occupied Western Europe and war

in In search of social democracy
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from democratic socialism and social democracy as to be worth studying as distinct ideological movements. The collapse of the USSR and its empire in Eastern Europe during 1989–91 is often hailed by Western conservatives as vindicating their belief that Marxism is a failed ideological system, unrealistic and of no value as a political movement or an ideological tool. However, for many Western Marxists the demise of the

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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−UK relationship during the years under examination here. Whilst cooperation and competition are the two main features of the relationship, there is, however, another key element that is largely overlooked by scholars analysing the relationship, that being coercive diplomacy. Traditionally, scholars believe that the coercive elements of US foreign policy were a tactic applied by the United States towards its foes, such as the Soviet Union (USSR), the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and North Vietnam. It is shown, in contrast to existing accounts, that this aspect of US

in A strained partnership?