Language, education and the Catholic Church

6 The nation in social practice II Language, education and the Catholic Church The language question Many writers argue that language is one of the distinguishing aspects of a nation. Eugene Hammel, for instance, suggested that in the Balkans, linguistic and religious identification are the primary sources of nationality.1 Attempts to form a codified language for the Southern Slavs were a cornerstone of the Illyrian movement in the nineteenth century and both Yugoslav states tried to enforce a standardised state language as a means of avoiding the potentially

in The formation of Croatian national identity
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conclusion 22/3/04 12:55 pm Page 214 Conclusion If historians have tended to overlook the changes in the necessity and function of bishops within the early modern Catholic church, the same accusation cannot be levelled at those French bishops, theologians and reformers who belonged to it. The first seventy years of the seventeenth century witnessed the most creative phase of Catholic reform within the French church, with energetic efforts in clerical reform, the emergence of an influential school of spirituality and the foundation of new religious orders

in Fathers, pastors and kings
Emigration and the spread of Irish religious influence

unrelated phrase – ‘British empire’.2 Yet as many historians of Ireland, its diaspora and particularly the Irish Catholic Church have noted, the existence of a peculiarly Irish ‘spiritual empire’ was widely spoken of even as the country’s ports remained choked with emigrants. This concept, normally involving the perception of a special, God-given emigrants’ ‘mission’ to spread the faith in whatever part of the world they settled, is somewhat problematic given the practical limitations explored in chapter three. Nevertheless, as a continually employed explanation of Irish

in Population, providence and empire

chap 4 22/3/04 12:53 pm Page 109 4 Ecclesiastical monarchy or monarchies? Why did the French episcopate prove so tenacious in opposing the regulars’ calls for independence through the seventeenth century? Like the bishops’ quarrels with the curés, these were crises of authority in which the episcopate fought to assert its disciplinary supremacy over the religious orders. Yet the struggle between the bishops and the regulars was just one manifestation of a much larger complexity: the place of the episcopate in the church’s governing hierarchy. Not only did

in Fathers, pastors and kings
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chap 5 22/3/04 12:53 pm Page 144 5 An uneasy alliance Despite the lamentations of seventeenth-century reformers about the inadequacies of religious belief and practice among the French population, they at least had the satisfaction of knowing that there was no real danger that protestantism would ever again challenge the privileged position of the Catholic church. Catholicism was the religion of France, of the majority of French people and of the royal family. Its clergy composed the first estate and were represented at provincial and national estates; they

in Fathers, pastors and kings
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manorial, secular and ecclesiastical, which adopted different procedures, adversarial and inquisitorial. Some used juries and some did not; some looked to accusers, others to informers. The chapters in this volume discuss the principles which governed both the common law of England and the Roman and canon law of the Church and of some of the states of continental Europe. Some are written by scholars who are, by training, lawyers and members of law faculties and schools, others by historians interested in the application of the law and the functioning of the courts in

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700
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Introduction 22/3/04 12:11 pm Page 1 Introduction An overview of the Catholic episcopate in early modern Europe comments that ‘one of the most far-reaching if usually under-remarked changes of the Reformation period as a whole concerns the function and necessity of bishops in the church’.1 Although immediately applicable to those regions of the Reformation where bishops disappeared altogether from the ecclesiastical and political landscapes, this observation might appear to have no relation to Catholic Europe.2 Here, bishops not only survived but also

in Fathers, pastors and kings

Luther gave us hope that he would relate the course of his life and the occasions of his struggles, and he would have done so if he had not been called from this mortal life into the everlasting converse of God and the heavenly Church. But a lucidly written contemplation of his own private life would have been useful, for it was full of lessons which would have been useful in strengthening piety in good minds, as well as a recitation of events which could have made known to posterity about many things, and it would also have refuted the slanders of those who, either

in Luther’s lives
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Roman ‘tyranny’ and radical Catholic opposition

trend, but rather as the ‘extremist wing’ of the Catholic Enlightenment.4 To portray Jansenists as unrepresentative of the period would be, it seems to me, to render the term Catholic Enlightenment of little use to scholars. If the term is to have any meaning at all within Enlightenment or eighteenthcentury studies, it must be to indicate the corpus of reforming and often dissenting intellectual and politico-religious thought which aimed at modernization of the Church and some aspects of society, yet retaining a theological outlook significantly Catholic in

in The Enlightenment and religion
Visions of episcopacy in seventeenth-century France

This book explores how conceptions of episcopacy (government of a church by bishops) shaped the identity of the bishops of France in the wake of the reforming Council of Trent (1545–63). It demonstrates how the episcopate, initially demoralised by the Wars of Religion, developed a powerful ideology of privilege, leadership and pastorate that enabled it to become a flourishing participant in the religious, political and social life of the ancien regime. The book analyses the attitudes of Tridentine bishops towards their office by considering the French episcopate as a recognisable caste, possessing a variety of theological and political principles that allowed it to dominate the French church.