Alison Forrestal

the bishops have to define their relationship with the lower clergy; they also had to characterise and then defend their understanding of the links between episcopacy and the supreme headship of the earthly church. As two of the major offices of the church, the episcopate and the pope had to interact routinely if the church was to function smoothly. But this intercourse carried the risks of rivalry and disagreement, and more often than not that was precisely how it evolved over the course of the century. Whenever the pope strayed into the French church, he tended to

in Fathers, pastors and kings
The pastoral responses of the Irish churches to emigration
Sarah Roddy

, for example, may have prompted ‘gasconade, froth, foam and fury’ in the Irish Catholic press, but the churches that had yet to be built were the real barriers to incoming migrants’ religious participation.2 Immigrants of all denominations and in all rural destinations could find themselves at a considerable remove from the ministrations of their church, while those who migrated to cities might be among thousands of parishioners under the auspices of one over-stretched cleric.3 Evidently more clergy were needed, and until a body of ‘native’ ministers could be

in Population, providence and empire
Open Access (free)
Alison Forrestal

century proved to be the high point of reform initiatives that were realised in the work of individual dévots and in foundations like the Company of the Holy Sacrament. Like the laity and lower clergy, sections of the episcopate were touched by the questing spirit of reform which characterised the French conclusion 22/3/04 216 12:55 pm Page 216 FATHERS, PASTORS AND KINGS church and which moved individuals and groups to implement the ideas and practices that would renew it. The Acarie circle’s search for a closer spiritual relationship with God was just one

in Fathers, pastors and kings
Open Access (free)
Sarah Roddy

:47 Introduction to emigration within the Catholic Church, to which about another fifth to a quarter of eighteenth-century migrants nominally belonged, are more difficult to discern. If Miller’s assertion that the majority of these early Catholic migrants were ‘rootless’ holds true, however, then it seems unlikely that their removal caused their clergy a great deal of practical trouble or mental anguish.8 Outward migration in the nineteenth century was a different matter. By 1815, Ireland’s population had expanded to almost seven million, more than double what it had been only a

in Population, providence and empire
Open Access (free)
Mirrors of French ideals?
Alison Forrestal

works of their own, specifically designed to serve their bishops. This was a feature of a wider development within the reform movement, whereby other clerical groups, like curés, were offered detailed written advice on the nature and functions of their office.3 The preceding chapters have used evidence from many of the treatises and other works, composed in France through the seventeenth century, which dealt with the duties and responsibilities incumbent upon bishops: works which were designed, therefore, and written by both prelates and non-episcopal clergy, to

in Fathers, pastors and kings
A case study in the construction of a myth
S.J. Barnett

of an independent, non-hierarchical and thus uncorrupted clergy. As was the case with the Puritans, Dissenters, although numerous, were of course a minority of the population, but, as in the 1640s and 1650s, minority aspiration could move demographic mountains or at least make them shake. One of the centrally important factors here is that the Dissenters were – as were the Puritans – often relatively prosperous and well educated and naturally had some aspirations of the civic kind. Yet the series of post-Restoration punitive acts included a bar on civic

in The Enlightenment and religion
Emigration and the spread of Irish religious influence
Sarah Roddy

emigration, and one which was very nearly the sole preserve of clergy, it merits dissection here. Curiously, while historians in the groups mentioned above allude to the prevalence of this line of thought, there have been few sustained attempts to analyse it.3 For many historians encountering the ‘spiritual empire’ thesis in the context of migration and the diaspora, its expression can be quickly dismissed as ‘unrealistic’ posturing, or as a merely ‘compensatory discourse’ which formed a more ‘comforting’ counterpoint to angry and generally futile pulpit denunciations of

in Population, providence and empire
Open Access (free)
Petitions, politics, and the African Christian converts of the nineteenth century
Hlonipha Mokoena

come to mean ‘a well-meaning white person’ in South Africa. This chapter will trace the collapse of the liberal tradition in southern Africa through the instrument of the petition, which emerged as an important tool for marking sites of contestation and expressing the grievances of educated and converted African Christians (amakholwa), as well as of black professionals, black journalists, black clergy, and other marginalised groups in the nascent literary culture of nineteenth-century South Africa. The petitioners are almost always black/African and their ideas about

in Worlding the south
Open Access (free)
Adam Fox
and
Daniel Woolf

reinforced the spoken tongue, by mandating the continued use of Welsh as an oral language of instruction linked to printed pedagogical texts written in that tongue. Suggett and White allude in their chapter to several topics dealt with in more detail in ensuing essays. Donald Meek, in Chapter 3, provides a study that pursues the influence of religion on another minority language, Gaelic at the respective frontiers between Highland and Lowland, and between orality and literacy. Meek demonstrates that the eighteenth-century Scottish clergy, not unlike their earlier and

in The spoken word
Open Access (free)
Alison Forrestal

thrived, and it might seem, at first glance, that neither their function nor necessity actually changed at all through the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The Catholic church had consecrated bishops from its earliest times; these were the supervisors of dioceses and the leaders of the faithful, and the Council of Trent simply reinforced that role by re-issuing customary rules that ordered bishops to reside in their dioceses, hold synods and visitations, and discipline their clergy. Yet this fundamental continuity belies the immense shifts in the understanding of

in Fathers, pastors and kings