of the local community was only possible, Dewey suggested, on the
back of a national form of democraticsocialism and social intelligence.
Furthermore, democracy beyond the state also depended on the vitality
of creative democracy within the nation state:
Our first defence is to realize that democracy can be served only
by the slow day by day adoption and contagious diffusion in every
phase of our common life of methods that are identical with the ends
to be reached and that recourse to monistic, wholesale, absolutist
procedures is a betrayal of human freedom no
relevance to Land or regional politics at all. We will return to this subject in Chapter 9.
Parties and elections in the Länder
Parties in the Länder
The major German parties today are the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD); the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) and its Bavarian
sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU), together often referred to
as the Christian Democrats or the Union parties; the Free Democratic
Party (FDP); the Bündis 90 (Alliance 90)/Greens; and the Party of DemocraticSocialism (PDS). Smaller parties that sometimes appear on the
support the conditions of equality, which would make creative
democracy through social intelligence possible. Dewey’s politics of
democraticsocialism subsequently reveals his views on the relationship
between economic and political equality within the Great Society. The
final section highlights how Dewey’s views on economic and political
equality translate into an argument for the extension of a global
egalitarianism, which would allow all nations of the world to pursue
the democratic way of life.
To conclude the study, Chapter 5 turns to outlining what I believe
proportion of the
population of the globe considered market principles unjust and the operation
of markets a major basis of inefficiency. The slump, the poverty and the
inequality of the 1930s, the lessons of co-operation in wartime, and optimism
about the prospects of democraticsocialism and welfare states, contributed
to an atmosphere critical of markets, not only across Europe but also in the
USA. The extent to which the market was re-evaluated positively in the late
twentieth century is thus remarkable. The background to the rehabilitation of
. Given that the likes of Keir
Hardie had supported Home Rule, advocates claimed they were just
‘reaffirming’ a ‘basic Labour policy’ that had been temporarily cast
aside.46 A few argued that limited self-government was consistent with
democraticsocialism, as it would promote participation in decisionmaking and develop responsibility.47 Others, however, looked on any
measure that threatened to break up the United Kingdom as, at best,
eccentric. Even Benn (albeit in 1967) argued that, as satellites could
circumnavigate the earth in ninety minutes, it was ‘a little odd
site of justice we
would have to invent the shared meanings for this imagined community. 29 Ironically, this is
the very accusation that Dworkin levels at Walzer in relation to
interpreting the meanings of American Society. With regard to health care,
for example, Walzer is accused of inventing what Americans think. Far from
the democraticsocialism attributed by Walzer to Americans, they favour only
a basic minimum and
congress of the GDR Communist party (continued on 9, 16 and 17 December)
decides to change its organisational structure, adopt new policies and
change its name from Socialist Unity Party (SED) to Socialist Unity
Party–Party of DemocraticSocialism (SED–PDS).
18 March 1990 First
democratic election for the Volkskammer (the legislature of the GDR).
Victory for the Christian Democratic-led ‘Alliance for Germany
from democraticsocialism and social democracy as to be worth studying as
distinct ideological movements.
The collapse of the USSR and its
empire in Eastern Europe during 1989–91 is often hailed by Western
conservatives as vindicating their belief that Marxism is a failed
ideological system, unrealistic and of no value as a political movement or
an ideological tool. However, for many Western Marxists the demise of the
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