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A Congolese Experience
Justine Brabant

, positive discrimination, sexual harassment, the anti-union positions taken by some NGO leadership, and the failure to protect the personal data of emergency aid recipients. 22 Beginning in 2019, attacks against the Ebola response teams were indeed committed or sponsored by armed groups, but the attacks at issue occurred earlier

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

in the realm of humanitarian aid. It would have been clearer to talk about the principle of proportionality or fairness – and thus eliminate any confusion with the usual meaning – because it is indeed a question of committing to positive discrimination. Beyond that semantic distinction, however, lies the issue of determining and prioritising ‘needs’, a notion that only appears to be objective. An examination of the types of action taken by humanitarian organisations

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Dispelling Misconceptions about Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in Conflict and Displacement
Heleen Touquet
,
Sarah Chynoweth
,
Sarah Martin
,
Chen Reis
,
Henri Myrttinen
,
Philipp Schulz
,
Lewis Turner
, and
David Duriesmith

safe, conducive environments to allow women/girl survivors to come forward and access care. Survivor-centred principles like ensuring confidentiality and practicing non-discrimination are essential to creating an environment where survivors feel safe enough to disclose. The experiences of frontline service providers show that, when confidential, good quality services are available and accessible – in conjunction with sensitised community outreach – survivors of all genders

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Sean Healy
and
Victoria Russell

’s lives are worthy of being saved ( Butler, 2020 ). Humanitarians make a claim that their values are universal ones that bind all people, in particular the value and dignity attached to all human life (the principle of humanity) and the ethical duty to help all people without discrimination, based on need alone (the principle of impartiality). Further, humanitarians have worked to enshrine these universal values into international

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Matthew Hunt
,
Sharon O’Brien
,
Patrick Cadwell
, and
Dónal P. O’Mathúna

to involve programme beneficiaries in the management of relief aid’ (Article 7). Accurate communication respects people’s autonomy and promotes informed decision-making. Foreign-language skills are often better among those with higher incomes and greater access to education, and therefore adequate translation services can prevent pre-existing discrimination or inequalities from further excluding some members of affected communities. 7 Justice

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Digital Bodies, Data and Gifts
Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

in the digital data economy’ ( Lupton, 2016: 117 ). Important gender implications arise from how surveillance technologies focused on bodies and personal lives intersect with identity-based discrimination, particularly gender-based violence, such as stalking or honour killing, and societal power-relation constructs ( Woodlock, 2017 ). The intensification of surveillance by self-tracking devices is significant, and, following Ruckenstein and Schüll (2017) , it is useful to adapt

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

It Is, But It Could Be a Better America’, a particularly courageous section that tried to air otherwise silenced issues on race, class, gender, and age discrimination. Works Cited ARC Bulletin ( 1918 ), 2 : 4 , 3 . ARC Magazine ( 1918a ), ‘ Fly – The Germans Are Coming! ’, 13 : 7 , 37 – 44 . ARC Magazine ( 1918b ), ‘ March of the Red Cross ’, 13 : 11 , 80 – 4 . Azoulay , A. ( 2008 ), The Civil Contract of Photography ( New York : Zone Books ). Bleiker , R. , Campbell , D

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Lisette R. Robles

settlement. However, the gender of these immediate networks (social bonds) for a survivor is equally crucial in accomplishing the help-seeking process. Women GBV survivors may find it more challenging to express their conditions for fear of further discrimination and harassment by more male refugee leaders, who are tasked to address the issue at the settlement level and direct it to the appropriate service provider. While seeking help from their social bonds (the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Future of Work among the Forcibly Displaced
Evan Easton-Calabria
and
Andreas Hackl

working people, including those engaged through digital labour platforms. This includes decent work objectives and key declarations by the ILO, its Conventions and Recommendations, as well as its Constitution. Standards on freedom of association and the right to collective bargaining, non-discrimination and equal renumeration, as well as the elimination of forced labour and child labour, are all key tenets that digital and non-digital work should uphold ( ILO, 2021 : 204

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
A conceptualisation of violence against women’s health (VAWH)
Sara De Vido

understanding of rights violations … as a distortion of relationships and network systems that are sustained by these rights in a way that is especially relevant for women.’20 VAWH as a form of discrimination against women: patterns of discrimination VAWH is a form of discrimination against women because they are women and/ or that affects women disproportionately, and it is structural, meaning that this form of violence is rooted in society, and based, as explained by the Council of Europe Istanbul Convention, on the ‘crucial social mechanisms by which women are forced into

in Violence against women’s health in international law