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Modernisation via Europeanisation
Brigid Laffan

2444Ch10 3/12/02 10 2:04 pm Page 248 Brigid Laffan Ireland: modernisation via Europeanisation Introduction: EU membership as part of the National Project Membership of the European Union since 1973 represented for Ireland the achievement of a roof or a shelter for its national project of modernisation. Following a re-assessment of Ireland’s economic policy in 1958, when a decision was taken to pursue external-led economic growth financed by multinational investment, membership of the large European market with its CAP became highly desirable. Economic

in Fifteen into one?
Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

. dependency culture A Conservative belief that if the state provides too many benefits, people will come to depend on them. This will stifle self-reliance, enterprise and hard work. It also keeps people out of the workforce. 4 An important part of the Conservatives’ economic policy was the creation of a more flexible labour market. This meant encouraging more people to seek work, if necessary at relatively low wages. High levels of benefit, it was thought, deterred many people from entering the labour market. As things stood in 1979, it was felt that benefits prevented

in Understanding British and European political issues
Open Access (free)
The evolving international financial architecture
Shalendra D. Sharma

to Asia (IMF 1999). During the height of the Asian crisis, the Malaysian government dramatically challenged the prevailing wisdom and imposed capital controls – bringing the issue to the forefront of economic policy debates. In a broad sense, capital controls are measures that discourage capital flows – both in and out of a country. Capital controls encompass a wide range of, often country-specific, measures, although they all attempt to restrict the movement of capital across national boundaries, or between residents and nonresidents. Capital controls may affect: (1

in The Asian financial crisis
Open Access (free)
Richard Bellamy

Among contemporary political theorists, the rule of law has been closely associated with the work of F. von Hayek, who gave it a pivotal role in his constitutional theory. Hayek’s account developed out of a critique of economic planning. 5 He believed interventionist economic policies and totalitarian politics were intimately connected: the one entailed an incremental increase in arbitrary interferences with individual

in Political concepts
A blessing or a curse for the employment of female university graduates?
Fang Lee Cooke

integrated set of social policies as a solid foundation, it will be difficult to expect families to operate in a self-sufficient manner, leaving those most at need in a vulnerable position and forcing families to adopt strategies that will render some of the social policies fruitless. Conclusions This chapter examined tensions in the university graduate labour market that have been intensified by different goals of the social and economic policies adopted by the Chinese government since the 1980s. Existing evidence suggests that the two-child policy exacerbates the labour

in Making work more equal
Patrick Doyle

accords with Clifford Geertz's view that the aftermath of independence is often a deflating experience. 10 Despite inauspicious beginnings, serious efforts to construct the Irish state did take place. This chapter begins with an outline of the postcolonial moment in Ireland in order to locate the co-operative movement against a backdrop of political, economic and military uncertainties that shaped public policy. Attention turns to examine how the movement played a central role in the creation and implementation of economic policy in the Free State. The chapter focuses

in Civilising rural Ireland
Labour and cultural change
Author: Steven Fielding

This book is the first in the new series The Labour Governments 1964–70 and concentrates on Britain's domestic policy during Harold Wilson's tenure as Prime Minister. It deals, in particular, with how the Labour government and Labour party as a whole tried to come to terms with the 1960's cultural revolution. The book is grounded in original research, takes account of responses from Labour's grass roots and from Wilson's ministerial colleagues, and constructs a total history of the party at this critical moment in history. It situates Labour in its wider cultural context and focuses on how the party approached issues such as the apparent transformation of the class structure, the changing place of women in society, rising immigration, the widening generation gap, and increasing calls for direct participation in politics. Together with the other volumes in the series, on international policy and economic policy, the book provides an insight into the development of Britain under Harold Wilson's government.

continuity, innovation and renewal
Paul Kennedy

/8/09 12:13:35 96 Responses to the crisis given the scale of the tasks confronting the party when it entered office. One issue which could no longer be delayed was the implementation of an effective economic policy. Such had been the pressures on the PSOE’s UCD predecessors in government to safeguard the delicate transition to democracy that the dire state of the economy had received insufficient attention. Unemployment, inflation, faltering GDP growth and a burgeoning public sector deficit all required immediate attention. Having learned from the failure of their

in In search of social democracy
Open Access (free)
Ben Dew

important flashpoints in historical debates, and the subject of extensive commentary. It would, however, be wrong to conclude that writers such as Blair were simply ill-informed. Rather, his comments should be seen as the product of a particular conception of economic issues that was to achieve increasing popularity over the course of the eighteenth century. When discussing commerce and finance, earlier generations of historians were primarily concerned with economic policy and, as such, the specific actions performed by monarchs. This ensured that they treated trade and

in Commerce, finance and statecraft
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Design and material culture in Soviet Russia, 1960s–80s
Author: Yulia Karpova

The major part of this book project was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 700913.

This book is about two distinct but related professional cultures in late Soviet Russia that were concerned with material objects: industrial design and decorative art. The Russian avant-garde of the 1920s is broadly recognised to have been Russia’s first truly original contribution to world culture. In contrast, Soviet design of the post-war period is often dismissed as hackwork and plagiarism that resulted in a shabby world of commodities. This book identifies the second historical attempt at creating a powerful alternative to capitalist commodities in the Cold War era. It offers a new perspective on the history of Soviet material culture by focusing on the notion of the ‘comradely object’ as an agent of progressive social relations that state-sponsored Soviet design inherited from the avant-garde. It introduces a shared history of domestic objects, handmade as well as machine-made, mass-produced as well as unique, utilitarian as well as challenging the conventional notion of utility. Situated at the intersection of intellectual history, social history and material culture studies, this book elucidates the complexities and contradictions of Soviet design that echoed international tendencies of the late twentieth century. The book is addressed to design historians, art historians, scholars of material culture, historians of Russia and the USSR, as well as museum and gallery curators, artists and designers, and the broader public interested in modern aesthetics, art and design, and/or the legacy of socialist regimes.