Ireland: modernisation via
Introduction: EU membership as part of the National Project
Membership of the European Union since 1973 represented for Ireland
the achievement of a roof or a shelter for its national project of modernisation. Following a re-assessment of Ireland’s economicpolicy in 1958,
when a decision was taken to pursue external-led economic growth
financed by multinational investment, membership of the large European
market with its CAP became highly desirable. Economic
A Conservative belief that if the
state provides too many
benefits, people will come to
depend on them. This will stifle
self-reliance, enterprise and
hard work. It also keeps people
out of the workforce.
4 An important part of the Conservatives’ economicpolicy was the creation of a
more flexible labour market. This meant encouraging more people to seek work,
if necessary at relatively low wages. High levels of benefit, it was thought,
deterred many people from entering the labour market. As things stood in 1979,
it was felt that benefits prevented
to Asia (IMF 1999).
During the height of the Asian crisis, the Malaysian government dramatically challenged the prevailing wisdom and imposed capital controls –
bringing the issue to the forefront of economicpolicy debates. In a broad
sense, capital controls are measures that discourage capital ﬂows – both in
and out of a country. Capital controls encompass a wide range of, often
country-speciﬁc, measures, although they all attempt to restrict the movement of capital across national boundaries, or between residents and nonresidents. Capital controls may affect: (1
Among contemporary political
theorists, the rule of law has been closely associated with the work of F.
von Hayek, who gave it a pivotal role in his constitutional theory.
Hayek’s account developed out of a critique of economic planning. 5 He believed
interventionist economicpolicies and totalitarian politics were intimately
connected: the one entailed an incremental increase in arbitrary
interferences with individual
A blessing or a curse for the employment of female university graduates?
Fang Lee Cooke
integrated set of social policies as a solid foundation, it will be difficult to expect families to operate in a self-sufficient manner,
leaving those most at need in a vulnerable position and forcing families to adopt
strategies that will render some of the social policies fruitless.
This chapter examined tensions in the university graduate labour market that
have been intensified by different goals of the social and economicpolicies
adopted by the Chinese government since the 1980s. Existing evidence suggests
that the two-child policy exacerbates the labour
accords with Clifford Geertz's view that the aftermath of independence is often a deflating experience. 10 Despite inauspicious beginnings, serious efforts to construct the Irish state did take place. This chapter begins with an outline of the postcolonial moment in Ireland in order to locate the co-operative movement against a backdrop of political, economic and military uncertainties that shaped public policy. Attention turns to examine how the movement played a central role in the creation and implementation of economicpolicy in the Free State. The chapter focuses
This book is the first in the new series The Labour Governments 1964–70 and concentrates on Britain's domestic policy during Harold Wilson's tenure as Prime Minister. It deals, in particular, with how the Labour government and Labour party as a whole tried to come to terms with the 1960's cultural revolution. The book is grounded in original research, takes account of responses from Labour's grass roots and from Wilson's ministerial colleagues, and constructs a total history of the party at this critical moment in history. It situates Labour in its wider cultural context and focuses on how the party approached issues such as the apparent transformation of the class structure, the changing place of women in society, rising immigration, the widening generation gap, and increasing calls for direct participation in politics. Together with the other volumes in the series, on international policy and economic policy, the book provides an insight into the development of Britain under Harold Wilson's government.
Responses to the crisis
given the scale of the tasks confronting the party when it entered office.
One issue which could no longer be delayed was the implementation of an
effective economicpolicy. Such had been the pressures on the PSOE’s UCD
predecessors in government to safeguard the delicate transition to democracy that the dire state of the economy had received insufficient attention.
Unemployment, inflation, faltering GDP growth and a burgeoning public
sector deficit all required immediate attention.
Having learned from the failure of their
in historical debates, and the subject of extensive commentary.
It would, however, be wrong to conclude that writers such as Blair
were simply ill-informed. Rather, his comments should be seen as
the product of a particular conception of economic issues that was
to achieve increasing popularity over the course of the eighteenth
century. When discussing commerce and finance, earlier generations
of historians were primarily concerned with economicpolicy and, as
such, the specific actions performed by monarchs. This ensured that
they treated trade and
The major part of this book project was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 700913. This book is about two distinct but related professional cultures in late Soviet
Russia that were concerned with material objects: industrial design and
decorative art. The Russian avant-garde of the 1920s is broadly recognised to
have been Russia’s first truly original contribution to world culture. In
contrast, Soviet design of the post-war period is often dismissed as hackwork
and plagiarism that resulted in a shabby world of commodities. This book
identifies the second historical attempt at creating a powerful alternative to
capitalist commodities in the Cold War era. It offers a new perspective on the
history of Soviet material culture by focusing on the notion of the ‘comradely
object’ as an agent of progressive social relations that state-sponsored Soviet
design inherited from the avant-garde. It introduces a shared history of
domestic objects, handmade as well as machine-made, mass-produced as well as
unique, utilitarian as well as challenging the conventional notion of utility.
Situated at the intersection of intellectual history, social history and
material culture studies, this book elucidates the complexities and
contradictions of Soviet design that echoed international tendencies of the late
twentieth century. The book is addressed to design historians, art historians,
scholars of material culture, historians of Russia and the USSR, as well as
museum and gallery curators, artists and designers, and the broader public
interested in modern aesthetics, art and design, and/or the legacy of socialist