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Open Access (free)
Alice Mah

Introduction to Part III Alice Mah Science and politics are impossible to disentangle within environmental justice (EJ) struggles. What counts as legitimate data, and whose voices count? How can local communities that face disproportionate toxic burdens effectively mobilize science to support their campaigns for environment justice? Scientific evidence of toxic exposure is often not sufficient to ensure adequate compensation, remediation, or recognition (Boudia and Jas 2014). As the epidemiologist and environmental justice activist Steve Wing (2005, 55) argued

in Toxic truths
Open Access (free)
Thom Davies

, may be won and lost by the crunch of code. If data is the new oil, when it comes to actual pollution, data also plays a vital role. The pollution data produced by multinational companies and environmental regulators is often at odds with the lived experience of frontline communities. In response, environmental justice activists have often attempted to record their own data about toxic hazards using a gamut of citizen science techniques. This is especially important considering that the burden of proof of DAVIES & MAH 9781526137029 PRINT.indd 237 08/06/2020 15

in Toxic truths
Open Access (free)
Community-based research amid oil development in South Los Angeles
Bhavna Shamasunder, Jessica Blickley, Marissa Chan, Ashley Collier-Oxandale, James L. Sadd, Sandy Navarro, Nicole J. Wong, and Michael Hannigan

merits of their concern and compel regulatory agencies, the state, and corporations to respond. As connected to the larger post-­truth stories presented in this volume, strong scientific evidence on an issue (such as climate change) (Oreskes and Conway 2011) may be weighed alongside efforts to cast doubt on existing knowledge or call for ever more data collection as a way to delay or deter action. In Los Angeles, today’s environmental justice struggles to address health hazards from oil contamination in neighborhoods are inherited from decades of environmental justice

in Toxic truths
Open Access (free)
Thom Davies

impacts of our environmental decisions from those who are destined to inherit our pollution in the future. Time hides pollution from plain view, making it difficult to sense or make sense of. In the most extreme cases, the impacts of toxic pollution will only reveal themselves years later, in the illnesses and deaths of those who are exposed (Davies 2019). Even then, it takes political work – often by environmental justice ­activists – ­to transform a sick body into a political fact (Armiero and Fava 2016). In some polluted communities, the only witnesses to years of

in Toxic truths
The case of air quality monitoring in a Spanish industrial area
Miguel A. López-Navarro

identifying the key elements that have favored the group’s legitimacy and the effectiveness of its actions: a strategy based on scientific knowledge and acceptance of the industry’s role in contributing to the development of the region. Second, it shows how a strategy based on confrontation does not necessarily exclude dialogue or, more specifically in this case, the possibility of actively participating in a multi-­stakeholder deliberative process. DAVIES & MAH 9781526137029 PRINT.indd 183 08/06/2020 15:32 184 Political strategies for seeking environmental justice

in Toxic truths
Tribal identity, civic dislocation, and environmental health research
Elizabeth Hoover

11 Whose citizenship in “citizen science”? Tribal identity, civic dislocation, and environmental health research Elizabeth Hoover Introduction: Citizen science After decades of traditional health and environmental studies which left many ­communities – ­especially low-­income and communities of c­olor – ­feeling disempowered, community involvement in the production of science is being heralded as necessary for the achievement of environmental justice (Shepard 2002; Cohen and Ottinger 2011; Wylie et al. 2014). Citizen science (CS) is broadly defined as

in Toxic truths
Open Access (free)
Strategic actions of an environmental organization in China
Xinhong Wang and Yuanni Wang

-­sized local ­environmental ties carried out by Green H DAVIES & MAH 9781526137029 PRINT.indd 221 08/06/2020 15:32 222 Political strategies for seeking environmental justice organization in Hunan P­ rovince – ­we have found that, by using two major strategies of “pushback” (倒逼Daobi) and negotiation (协商Xieshang), the environmental organization has carried out a form of soft confrontation to protect the environmental public interest within a restrained political space and with limited resources. Green Hunan uses the media as a platform and pushback as a strategy to

in Toxic truths
Open Access (free)
A tool of environmental justice in Ecuadorian toxic tours
Amelia Fiske

5 The auger: A tool of environmental justice in Ecuadorian toxic tours Amelia Fiske The well platform is quiet in the afternoon heat of the Amazon. Two school-­ aged children in matching uniforms wander across the empty dirt rectangle carved out of the forest on their way home. I am with a group of photographers, on a “Toxic Tour” to document the pollution left in the soil after two decades of extraction by the Texaco Company1 in Ecuador. Although Texaco left the country in the 1990s, oil extraction has since continued with the state and other foreign companies

in Toxic truths
Alison Mohr

distributive and procedural dimensions of transitions research and practice should be addressed. Drawing on Schlosberg’s (2007) work on defining what environmental justice means, this chapter proceeds with the argument that the theory and practice of justice necessarily include distributive justice (to address socio-spatial inequalities), but must also embrace notions of justice based in a recognition of differences and broad participation in the politics of transitions in the form of procedural opportunities. Accordingly, distributive justice refers to how the spatio

in Science and the politics of openness
Open Access (free)
Reframing “sensing” and data generation in citizen science for empowering relationships
João Porto de Albuquerque and André Albino de Almeida

Albuquerque et al. 2016), data collection for scientific research (Haklay 2013a), or the data gathering in Citizen Observatories (Degrossi et al. 2014), which can be used to support claims for environmental justice (Mah 2017). In the age of “big data” and “data-­driven” decision making, the availability of mobile phones, often equipped with GPS receivers, gives rise to the alluring vision of 6 billion “citizens as sensors” – according to the influential term coined by Goodchild (2007) – who are able to generate “volunteered geographic information” with a level of precision

in Toxic truths