relations with the countries
of Latin America’.
It was the first time since the Portuguese accession that the government had
changed (the PSD had won the 1985, 1987 and 1991 general elections).
Portuguese document to the Inter-governmental Conference www.minnestrangeiros.pt/politica/europeia/engindex.html
The Directorate General for Community Affairs was created in 1985, under
the designation Directorate-General of the European Communities. The
change of name took place in the framework of globalrestructuring of the
Foreign Ministry, in 1994.
See Pedro Sanchez da Costa
speech goes on to state that Britain has made the ‘right’ and
‘flexible’ policy response at a pace that matches the speed of social change.
What we can see here is one face of the making of a particular kind of
globalrestructuring, one that for many commentators is captured by a ‘British
model’ of neo-liberal or hyperliberal capitalism. Yet, how can we make sense
of a ‘national capitalism’ given, for example, the prevalence of German banks
in the City of London, the Japanese multinationals on northern business parks
and the migrant workers providing much of the
Sinha , Colonial Masculinity: The “Manly Englishman” and
the “Effeminate Bengali” in the Late Nineteenth
Century ( Manchester : Manchester University Press , 1995 ); Mrinalini
Sinha , Specters of Mother India: The GlobalRestructuring of an
underpinned by the globalrestructuring of production and heightened insecurity.
Refugees fleeing war, persecution or environmental loss are part of this. The
greater number are the millions of guest workers drawn to the hotspots of global
economic activity, those in the international trade in coerced and bonded labour
and mobile professional and entrepreneurial elites. Needless to say, the experiences across that range could not be more divergent. A number of the patterns of
migration into Western Europe follow the entanglements of empire created by
–25 April, University of California, Berkeley.
Tirole, J. (1988), The Theory of Industrial Organization, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.
Urry, J. (2000), Sociology beyond Society: Mobilities for the Twenty-First Century,
Warde, A. and Martens, L. (2000), Eating Out: Social Differentiation, Consumption
and Pleasure, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Whatmore, S. and Thorne, L. (1997), ‘Nourishing networks: alternative geographies
of food’, in Goodman, D. and Watts, M. (eds), Globalising Food: Agrarian Questions and GlobalRestructuring, London, Routledge
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis
Change in World Politics, Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1992; Susan Strange, Casino Capitalism, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986.
Robert Cox, ‘GlobalRestructuring: Making Sense of the Changing International Political Economy’, in Richard Stubbs and Geoffrey R. D. Underhill (eds), Political Economy
and the Changing Global Order, London: Macmillan, 1994, p. 49.
Ibid. ‘At one time, the military–bureaucratic form of state seemed to be optimum in
countries of peripheral capitalism for the enforcement of monetary discipline. Now,
International Monetary Fund
systems and issuing red alerts when countries fail to
provide adequate information; (2) a Contingent Global Financial Facility to
provide contingent credit lines to countries that, although solvent, face temporary liquidity problems (to be eligible, these countries would have to meet
some minimum standards of disclosure and transparency); and (3) a GlobalRestructuring Agency to provide conditional lending and policy advice to
crisis countries. Edwards’ proposal has the potential to create an even larger
bureaucracy, with coordination and duplication problems. Imagine a