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Open Access (free)
Bonnie Evans

support the welfare and care of autistic individuals without forcing them into a wider framework of self-governance. The concept of autism has redefined how we think about individual rights and child rights. If there is another metamorphosis of autism on the horizon, it will be shaped in a very different political and legal climate to that which supported the first autism. The Mental Deficiency Act 1913 and

in The metamorphosis of autism
Continuities and contradictions underpinning Amitai Etzioni’s communitarian influence on New Labour
Simon Prideaux

individual rights. Rather, the opposite is believed to be true: ‘ strong rights presume strong responsibilities ’. 35 All-in-all, Etzioni’s is an argument that is convinced by the feeling that a commitment to the community can counter the pursuit of self-interest and unbridled greed. Commitment would not represent a life of self-sacrifice, altruism or austerity

in The Third Way and beyond
Open Access (free)
Jeremy Gould

DISCIPLINES of the region. This understanding of democratization relates specifically to a programmatic agenda of state reform promoted by transnational actors and enforced via conditions associated with foreign aid and, more recently, debt relief. Donor-endorsed versions of democratization claim to be grounded in a liberal notion of inalienable individual rights. This encompasses, among other things: political pluralism (the freedom to form political parties); free and regular elections; an unconstrained (and privately-owned) media; and the separation of powers among the

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)
Paul Greenough, Stuart Blume, and Christine Holmberg

need and that coverage should be viewed as a public good. 40 This position blunts accusations that major public health tools like vaccination and its companions ‘surveillance and containment’ are assaults on individual rights, a stance brought into prominence by AIDS activists in the 1980s; 41 these civil liberties concerns have reappeared in the face of counter-terror measures like ‘preparedness’. 42

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
The place of equal opportunity
Andrew Mason

pay lip-service to this ideal of equality of opportunity and seek to enshrine it in legislation and public policy, it is hard for them to carve out the right role for it within their theories. On the one hand, they want to show that a commitment to equality of opportunity is compatible with respecting personal liberty, especially in the face of those who insist that enforcing it threatens individual rights, including the

in Political concepts
Open Access (free)
Governmental power and authority in democratic ecological governance
Lennart J. Lundqvist

, government should steer with ‘minimum coercion and maximum consent’. But this balance is extremely precarious. Valuing democracy and individual autonomy very highly might compromise the integrity of the commons, and the opposite may lead to losses of democratic legitimacy. As I have argued elsewhere, the ecological state should appear as ‘a green fist in a velvet glove’ (Lundqvist 2001b). What, then, are the conclusions from the Swedish experience to date? The traditionally generous formal ‘enclosures’ around individual autonomy and individual rights have actually been

in Sweden and ecological governance
Open Access (free)
The prognosis
Sara De Vido

.’11 Viewed in this light, my paradigm and my reconceptualisation of states’ obligations will not help reduce VAWH. Furthermore, as Chinkin and Wright argued in 1993 with regard to the right to food – which shares with the right to 238 DE VIDO 9781526124975 PRINT.indd 238 20/04/2020 10:38 The prognosis health its (weak) position among social, economic and cultural rights – there is a gap ‘between legal provisions and realities of life for women,’ and that ‘the primacy accorded to the protection of individual rights does not correspond to the reality of most women

in Violence against women’s health in international law
Open Access (free)
Simona Giordano, John Harris, and Lucio Piccirillo

of societal benefit is a form of harm, then arguably certain political norms and regulatory constraints are harmful; and if society is not an abstract entity but a sum of individuals, then societal harm, or loss of societal benefits, is not to be understood as abstract harm to an ideal entity, but as tangible harm to real individuals. Scientific research is often perceived as a threat; medical sciences illustrate vividly the tension between the goals of scientific research and the long-term interests of society, on the one hand, and individual rights on the other

in The freedom of scientific research
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

this has the effect of benefiting society as a whole. In a famous passage Mill made the case for the defence of individual rights: The only purpose for which power can be rightly exercised over any member of a civilised community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others. His own good, either physical or moral, is not a sufficient warrant. He cannot rightfully be

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

desire to bring the British constitution into line with the rest of Europe, all of whose states have special arrangements to protect individual rights. The increase in the powers of the police and the courts which had occurred in the 1980s and 1990s were now seen as a major threat to our rights. ● ● 160 ● ● ● Understanding British and European political issues The British government had been brought before the European Court of Human Rights (which seeks to enforce the Convention) over fifty times since 1966 and had lost most of the cases. Although the decisions

in Understanding British and European political issues