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Looking beyond the state
Anna Greenwood

, 1800–1947 , New Delhi, Orient Longman and Sangam Books, 2005 ; Anne Digby, Diversity and Division in Medicine: Healthcare in South Africa from the 1800s , Oxford, Peter Lang, 2006 ; Guy Attewell, Refiguring Unani Tibb: Plural Healing in Late Colonial India , New Delhi, Orient Longman, 2007 ; Biswamoy Pati and Mark Harrison (eds.), The Social History of Health and

in Beyond the state
Missions, the colonial state and constructing a health system in colonial Tanganyika
Michael Jennings

be at least attempting to meet the health needs of the territory could only really be justified (to the extent that it could) by recognising the voluntary role that actors in the form of missionary organisations were playing in running health services for Tanganyikans. The model that characterised late colonial-period Tanganyika was one of public-private partnership. Having long acted as informally

in Beyond the state
Daktar Binodbihari Ray Kabiraj and the metaphorics of the nineteenth-century Ayurvedic body
Projit Bihari Mukharji

). 11 On modern Unani medicine, see N. Quaiser, ‘Politics, Culture and Colonialism: Unani's Debate with Doctory’, in B. Pati and M. Harrison (eds), Health, Medicine and Empire: Perspectives on Colonial India (Hyderabad: Orient Longman, 2001), 317–55; S. Alavi, Islam and Healing: Loss and Recovery of an Indo-Muslim Medical Tradition, 1600–1900 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008); G. N. A. Attewell, Refiguring Unani Tibb: Plural Healing in Late Colonial India (New Delhi: Orient Longman, 2007). On modern Siddha

in Progress and pathology
The case of colonial India and Africa
C. A. Bayly

Eurasian and North African peasant societies, the role of the peasant farmer as entrepreneur and food provider is clearly critical. Without a robust peasant-farming sector the fate of colonized and semi-colonized societies in the early-modern and modern periods might have been even worse than it actually was. Consequently, the possibilities for late-colonial and post-colonial economic development would have been even more sharply curtailed. William G. Skinner, for instance, pointed in the 1970s to the continuing buoyancy of peasant-based rural marketing systems in

in History, historians and development policy
Neil Macmaster

for the next twenty years and beyond. In conclusion, and returning briefly to the key test of legal reform, we have seen how the late colonial state faced considerable difficulty in making any major impact on Algerian social and family structures. The basic administrative means, including a comprehensive état civil, were simply too inadequate to guarantee enforcement of the liberal marriage and family law of 1959. However, the newly independent republic maintained a discreet silence on the fact that a law that had been so fiercely attacked as an instrument of

in Burning the veil
Sabine Clarke

exactly was knowledge expected to move from the laboratory and spur development? This chapter will examine the relationship between scientific investigation and colonial development that was embodied in the new arrangements for colonial research that were created in fields such as sugar chemistry during the first half of the 1940s. The late colonial period saw an unprecedented expansion in scientific research across the Colonial Empire and in British universities, funded through the Research Fund of the 1940 CDW Act and its successors. The new

in Science at the end of empire
Sabine Clarke

, ‘who would try to get them to enter the chemical industry’. Instead, they wanted a sugar technologist to head the STL and a focus on improvements to the technical process of sugar manufacturing. Asked what their aim was, the BWISA responded that they wanted to produce sugar more quickly and cheaply. 64 There were a number of wider political and economic factors that worked to discourage sugar producers from diversifying into new chemical derivatives of sugar in the late colonial period. In April 1949 the Labour Party announced its intention to

in Science at the end of empire
Michael Woolcock, Simon Szreter, and Vijayendra Rao policy-paper-54.html Sangari, Kumkum and Sudesh Vaid (eds) (1990). Recasting Women: Essays in Indian Colonial History, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press Sarkar, Sumit (1983). Popular Movements and Middle Class Leadership in Late Colonial India: Perspectives and Problems of a History from Below, Calcutta, KP Bagchi Schumpeter, Joseph A. (1975 [1942]). Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, New York: Harper Scott, James (1985). Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press Scott, James (1998). Seeing Like a State

in History, historians and development policy