Élisabeth Anstett

.3 Yet, up until very recently, the treatment of the bodies resulting from mass violence – or, for that matter, this extreme violence itself – has received little attention from anthropologists.4 HRMV.indb 181 01/09/2014 17:28:43 182  Élisabeth Anstett However, a shift began with the large-scale exhumations under­ taken in Bosnia and Spain, which shed new light on the fate of bodies in such situations and led anthropologists to consider the agendas underpinning a set of practices which, in a real sense, link the killers to their victims even after the death of

in Human remains and mass violence
Open Access (free)
Victim, witness and evidence of mass violence
Caroline Fournet

3 The human body: victim, witness and evidence of mass violence1 Caroline Fournet Introduction In the context of international criminal law and case law, the fact that the individual, as a human being, is the target of criminals against humanity and génocidaires alike is a legal reality that raises no doubt or controversy.2 The definition of a crime against humanity protects ‘any civilian population’,3 while that of genocide refers to the victim ‘group’.4 Further, both definitions protect the physical and moral integrity of the individual – although the text of

in Human remains and mass violence
The status of bodies in the aftermath of the Khmer Rouge genocide
Anne Yvonne Guillou

7 From bones-as-evidence to tutelary spirits: the status of bodies in the aftermath of the Khmer Rouge genocide Anne Yvonne Guillou Introduction ‘What is a body?’ The question asked by Stéphane Breton is one that haunts those anthropologists who have to deal with any aspect of the materiality of flesh and of its corruption.1 On the one hand there is its materiality, through which the marks of mass violence such as that of the Khmer Rouge genocide can be read,2 while on the other there is its corruption, the slow process accompanying the change in the religious

in Human remains and mass violence
Open Access (free)
The French search mission for the corpses of deportees in Germany, 1946–58
Jean-Marc Dreyfus

6 Renationalizing bodies? The French search mission for the corpses of deportees in Germany, 1946–58 1 Jean-Marc Dreyfus Introduction Corpses are not a research subject that a historian would normally choose, and less still corpses en masse. Whether approaches to mass violence are of political, social or cultural history, the ­historical analysis of societies tends to focus on the living, and corpses are discussed only in terms of a social group’s structure in relation to death, the social definition of which can be addressed only through a detailed cultural

in Human remains and mass violence
Embodying the disappeared of the Argentinian dictatorship through law
Sévane Garibian

their parents, as discussed in the last section of the chapter). If the disappearance is, initially, a challenge to the law, the law thus becomes, in turn, a challenge to the disappearance. Right to the truth and reconstruction of the fate of the disappeared Argentina is an extraordinary laboratory in the domain of struggle against impunity and of ‘restoration of the truth’, and constitutes a useful paradigm in the context of reflection on the corpses of HRMV.indb 46 01/09/2014 17:28:35 The disappeared of the Argentinian dictatorship  47 mass violence. Its special

in Human remains and mass violence
Open Access (free)
Individuality, identification and multidirectional memorialisation in post-genocide Rwanda
Ayala Maurer-Prager

to retain its force as subject or stand as object. Enabled by a context of mass violence in which death ceases to singularly signify exceptional abjectness because of the ubiquity with which it is seen and experienced, identifications between the living subject and the corpse are enacted within new parameters. Rwanda’s corpses  –​viewed by many as the ultimate evidence of her genocidal history –​have become a literal part of the country’s landscape. At memorial sites such as Murambi, Nyamata and Nyarubuye, decomposing bodies and the bones of the dead commemorate

in Human remains in society
Missing persons and colonial skeletons in South Africa
Nicky Rousseau

8 Identification, politics, disciplines: missing persons and colonial skeletons in South Africa1 Nicky Rousseau Locating, exhuming, and identifying human remains associated with mass violence and genocide has come to occupy an impor­tant place in the panoply of transitional justice measures. Although such work cuts across the core transitional justice issues of justice, reparation and truth-telling, it has received surprisingly little critical attention from within the transitional justice field.2 Existing studies, with some exception, can be characterized by

in Human remains and identification
Where and when does the violence end?
David M. Anderson and Paul J. Lane

, Edinburgh University in 2012, Uppsala University in 2013 and at the third annual and international conference of the research programme ‘Corpses of Mass Violence and Genocide’, University of Manchester, September 2014. Lane extends his thanks to all of the participants on these occasions, and especially Dr Joost Fontein and Professor Lynn Meskell, for their comments and critical suggestions and to Lotte Hughes for comments on an earlier draft. We would also like to thank Dr Élisabeth Ansett and Dr Jean-​Marc Dreyfus for their invitation to contribute to this volume, for

in Human remains in society
Open Access (free)
The politics of exhumation in post-genocide Rwanda
Rémi Korman

, Génocides et politiques mémorielles, 2012, available at http://chs.univ-paris1.fr/genocides_et_ politiques_memorielles/?Le-Rwanda-face-a-ses-morts-ou-les (accessed 10 November 2013) Korman, R., ‘The Tutsi body in the 1994 genocide: ideology, physical destruction, and memory’, in É. Anstett & J.-M. Dreyfus (eds), Destruction and Human Remains: Disposal and Concealment in Genocide and Mass Violence (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2014), pp. 226–42 Laurentin, E., ‘La fabrique de l’histoire’ (radio programme), France-Culture (broadcast 26 February 2010) Muramira, G

in Human remains and identification
Mass violence, genocide, and the ‘forensic turn’

Human remains and identification presents a pioneering investigation into the practices and methodologies used in the search for and exhumation of dead bodies resulting from mass violence. Previously absent from forensic debate, social scientists and historians here confront historical and contemporary exhumations with the application of social context to create an innovative and interdisciplinary dialogue, enlightening the political, social and legal aspects of mass crime and its aftermaths. Through a ground-breaking selection of international case studies, Human remains and identification argues that the emergence of new technologies to facilitate the identification of dead bodies has led to a “forensic turn”, normalising exhumations as a method of dealing with human remains en masse. However, are these exhumations always made for legitimate reasons? Multidisciplinary in scope, the book will appeal to readers interested in understanding this crucial phase of mass violence’s aftermath, including researchers in history, anthropology, sociology, forensic science, law, politics and modern warfare.