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Rachel E. Hile

that it “giveth us to feel how many headaches a passionate life bringeth us to” (Sidney, Defence, 128). Like Sidney, Puttenham emphasizes what George A. Test would refer to as the “laughter” trait in satire by linking it explicitly to dramatic comedies. In Puttenham’s version of the history of generic forms, he claims that satire’s “most bitter invective against vice and vicious men” gave way over time to dramatic comedy of two types: the first kind—the so-called Old Comedy of the Greeks— “was somewhat sharp and bitter after the nature of the satire, openly and by

in Spenserian satire
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Imitation of Spenserian satire
Rachel E. Hile

speaker argues in the “Introduction” for the ease with which we can know the natures of various animals: The Elephant much loue to Man will show. The Tygers, Wolues, and Lyons, we doe finde, Are rauenous, fierce, and cruell euen by kinde. We know at carryon we shall finde the Crowes, And that the Cock the time of midnight knowes. (Wither, Abuses, 43) He then contrasts the difficulty of understanding the nature of the “Creature called Man,” who, because of human inconsistency and mutability, is not “semper idem in his will, / Nor stands on this or that opinion still

in Spenserian satire
Rachel E. Hile

Albion the riches of other times and cities, uniting within herself both the fecundity of nature and the dynamic of historical succession” (Hawkins, “From mythography,” 58). The westward movement of Cybele, who resides in the city most favored by Fortune at any given moment, appears, as Lawrence Manley argues, “in epic movement toward Troynovant. As the major focus of this   6 In her earlier form in Anatolia, Phrygia, and early Greece, she wore a polos, a high cylindrical hat, but, by the time of the Romans, the polos became conflated with the mural crown of Tyche

in Spenserian satire
Affiliation, allusion, allegory
Rachel E. Hile

place varying degrees of emphasis on either text or context, with Donald Cheney’s largely ahistorical reading of the poem as musing about the nature of poetry serving as an outlier to more typical attention to links between the poem and the historical situation of Arthur Gorges, the death of whose first wife, Douglas Howard, led Gorges into numerous legal battles with her relatives regarding inheritance (see Cheney, “Grief,” for the former and Gibson, “Legal context,” for the latter). Although Spenser does not here explicitly identify Gorges with Alcyon and Douglas

in Spenserian satire
Open Access (free)
Theory and Spenserian practice
Rachel E. Hile

confirmed censorship of the Bishops’ Ban—arise from the slipperiness of indirect satire. It makes sense that the Elizabethan authorities in charge of these suppressions would prefer to be as vague as possible regarding their decisions: after all, by its nature, indirect satire is MUP_Hile_SpenserSatire_Printer.indd 26 14/10/2016 15:35 Indirect satire 27 not readily comprehensible to every reader, so the suppressors would not find it in their interest to help naïve readers to become knowing readers. Meaning-making in indirect satire: allusion, symbol, analogy, and

in Spenserian satire
Rachel E. Hile

interference” at the intra-cultural level, because even within a single nation or group, the polysystemic nature hypothesized of the literary system means that there are more and less privileged and powerful genres, publishers, authors, critics, and so forth in relationships within a single polysystem. How, we might ask, does the hegemony of the novel at the present day interfere with poetry, or with short stories? What does the towering stature of Shakespeare within early modern English studies mean for graduate students considering dissertation topics? Interference

in Spenserian satire
Rachel E. Hile

“owl” in Shepheardes Calender (“June,” line 24; “December,” line 72), Spenser uses the adjective “ghastly” to modify the noun, suggesting the ill-omened nature of the owl. Spenser makes another change to his sources in changing the lime twigs and snares of Bion and Ronsard to arrows and rocks, which Thomalin uses, and especially the “fowling net” in which Willye’s father caught Cupid. The image of the net connects the entrapment of Cupid with the cliché of the sonneteer caught in the golden net of his lady’s hair, as for example in sonnet 12 of Sidney’s Astrophil and

in Spenserian satire