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The clergy and emigration in principle
Sarah Roddy

1 Talk of population: the clergy and emigration in principle Migration from nineteenth-century Ireland, no less than migration from any other society, was driven primarily by an economic imperative. Whether attracted by the promise of a better life in Britain or the New World, or feeling compelled to leave by a lack of opportunity at home, most Irish emigrants determined their course based on a rational assessment of their own and their family’s best economic interests.1 Accordingly, as Professor David Fitzpatrick has eloquently observed, ‘for its opponents as

in Population, providence and empire
Open Access (free)
Location the Irish gothic novel
Christina Morin

s and 1780s. 15 As it does so, it draws attention to the divergent uses and manifestations of the literary gothic in late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century Ireland. Not just an allegorical expression of its Anglo-Irish writers’ fear of the repressed past and its people (the Catholic majority), the Irish literary gothic in this period proves a dynamic, cross-sectarian, and cross-cultural enterprise, as the following chapters demonstrate. This diversity has begun to be recognised in new research by Claire Connolly, Niall Gillespie, Richard Haslam, and Emer

in The gothic novel in Ireland, c. 1760–1829
Patrick Doyle

stood at 64 per cent of its 1876 value and, meanwhile, international competition only increased. 9 The timing of this depression compounded another problem for Irish farmers engaged in dairy production. For much of the nineteenth century, Ireland enjoyed a position as one of the pre-eminent suppliers of butter to Britain. Butter production took place within the home, by women who worked the product by hand. 10 This butter would be sold to merchants who supplied one of the markets in Ireland, or sent on to Britain where it formed an important source of nutrition for

in Civilising rural Ireland
Heidi Hansson

state and shape communal identities, it is usually coherent and linear. The fact that nationhood was a fraught question in nineteenth-century Ireland has sometimes been used to explain why the Irish tradition of the realist novel is comparatively weak. As Cairns Craig puts it, there are obvious parallels between ‘the modern nation, with its implication of all the people of a territory bound together into a single historical process, and the technique of the major nineteenth-century novels, whose emplotment enmeshes their multiplicity of characters into a single

in Irish literature since 1990
The representation of violence in Northern Irish art
Shane Alcobia-Murphy

, one could read the poem as expressing the effects of linguistic colonisation on the speaker, with English replacing Gaelic as the mother tongue, discomfiting not only her sense of place but also her sense of being (the text goes on to talk of ‘the bullet through her heart / as English followed the roads, its tidings’ / malady amputating the wildscape’). In the section cited above, the quotations present an analogy between British colonisation in mid-nineteenth-century Ireland and Stalinist Russia in the mid-1930s. Ginzburg’s autobiography relates a narrative of

in Irish literature since 1990
Open Access (free)
Debatable lands and passable boundaries
Aileen Christianson

Boland problematises this within the Irish context: Norquay_05_Ch4 68 22/3/02, 9:53 am 69 Debatable lands and passable boundaries Within a poetry inflected by its national tradition, women have often been double-exposed, like a flawed photograph, over the image and identity of the nation. The nationalization of the feminine, the feminization of the national, had become a powerful and customary inscription in the poetry of that very nineteenth-century Ireland. ‘Kathleen ni Houlihan!’ exclaimed McNeice. ‘Why/must a country like a ship or a car, be always

in Across the margins
The tragedy (and comedy) of accelerated modernisation
Kieran Keohane
Carmen Kuhling

Liberal parliamentary Home Rule movement in nineteenth-century Ireland was that British administration of Ireland from London was inefficient and irrational. The abject failure of the English government and its offices in Ireland to respond adequately to famine conditions in the 1840s was one of the main proofs of the argument for Home Rule. 18 Marx and Engels, The Communist Manifesto, p. 84. 19 ‘Real Ireland’ is the leading range of commodified images on postcards, calendars, and coffee-table books – photographs of ‘traditional Ireland’ showing houses, landscapes

in The end of Irish history?
Community, language and culture under the Celtic Tiger
Steve Coleman

who speak them.12 There was more than profit at stake, however. In Negri’s terms,13 ‘to say state is only another way to say capital’ – as capitalism develops, the state acts more and more as both the embodiment and representative of capital. The Telecom campaign involved more than an attempt to boost share prices: it also represented the state’s attempt to relegitimise itself, in its new ‘Celtic Tiger’ form, as a ‘shareholder democracy’. The Irish language and political economy By the nineteenth century, Irish was well on its way to becoming a minority language

in The end of Irish history?
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The International Arbitration and Peace Association
Heloise Brown

. 179–84. Concord (17 March 1891), p. 47. Total IAPA membership was about four hundred people, with an additional circulation of the Journal to subscribing non-members of about one hundred. Concord (1884–1899); see also J. Frederick Green to Élie Ducommun, 21 September 1898, Document 7, Box 19, IPB. Concord (18 March 1890), p. 39; Journal (23 December 1885), p. 196. 130 ‘ unity is strength ’ 23 Journal (15 April 1885), p. 102. 24 See Maria Luddy, ‘Isabella Tod’, in Mary Cullen and Maria Luddy (eds), Women, Power and Consciousness in Nineteenth Century Ireland

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
The pastoral responses of the Irish churches to emigration
Sarah Roddy

, lxx:280 (Winter 1981), 310; F.J., 16 Feb. 1824; Michael Keyes, Funding the Nation. Money and Nationalist Politics in Nineteenth-Century Ireland (Dublin, 2011), p. 15. 11 Thompson, Into all Lands, p. 15; Thomas McDonald, ‘The Church overseas’ in Michael Hurley (ed.), Irish Anglicanism, 1869–1969: Essays on the Role of Anglicanism in Irish Life presented to the Church of Ireland on the Occasion of the Centenary of its Disestablishment by a Group of Methodist, Pres­byterian, Quaker and Roman Catholic Scholars (Dublin, 1970), p. 93. 12 Audrey Lockhart, Some Aspects

in Population, providence and empire