Open Access (free)
Susan M. Johns

of the source material itself, but examples of other powerful countesses who acted in similar roles to those of the countesses of Chester do show useful patterns in the way that women of comital rank exerted power throughout the female life cycle. C 53 noblewomen and power The Chester evidence The earls of Chester were among the greatest nobles of the Norman and Angevin realms, the high political élite of twelfth-century society. Their power was rooted in extensive land holdings in Cheshire and beyond, which by 1086 consisted of land scattered throughout

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Open Access (free)
What lovers want
Arlyn Diamond

Hibbard, Mediaeval Romance in England (1924, rept. New York 1963), pp. 306–11, for a discussion of sources and analogues. A. S. G. Edwards, ‘Gender, order and reconciliation in Sir Degrevant’, in Carol M. Meale (ed.), Readings in Medieval English Romance (Cambridge, 1994), pp. 53–64. Edwards, ‘Gender, order and reconciliation’, p. 56. Jennifer Ward, English Noblewomen in the Later Middle Ages (London, 1992) and (ed.), Women of the English Nobility and Gentry (Manchester, 1995), a collection of documents. These contain the most extensive study of English women of the

in Pulp fictions of medieval England
Justin Champion

novels to Sophia, and the use of manuscripts as tokens of love with unidentified noblewomen. In these transactions Toland exploited ideas to establish channels of communication. Although he died in relatively poor circumstances, he moved comfortably in more grand and privileged surroundings. Toland not only made ideas, he communicated and circulated them across political, social and cultural space. Insight into Toland’s awareness of the value of this sociability to the diffusion of ideas, can be read in his description of the ‘humours and politicks’ of Epsom (1711

in Republican learning
Thinking, feeling, making
James Paz

-given might (2181). At other times, it is used to express a sense of cunning or secret plotting, as when the poet admonishes those who would conspire against kinsmen (2168). Cræft could carry gendered connotations in Anglo-Saxon culture, too, including the familiar association between women and textile production. 15 In Beowulf , weaving imagery contributes to the characterization of noblewomen such as Wealhtheow, who metaphorically ‘weaves peace’ among the warriors through her actions (passing mead and distributing

in Dating Beowulf
Eric Pudney

, whose parts were performed by the Queen and various noblewomen. Once again, the contrast with royalty is provided by witches. If the formal innovation – the anti-masque – which The Masque of Queens introduced was indeed suggested by Anne, as Jonson’s preface claims, this would hardly 61 Stephen Orgel’s ‘Jonson and the Amazons’, in Soliciting Interpretation, edited by Elizabeth D. Harvey and Katharine Eisaman Maus (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990), pp. 119–39, points out that the queens are ultimately subordinate to the male figure of Heroic Virtue and the

in Scepticism and belief in English witchcraft drama, 1538–1681
Sukanta Chaudhuri

Pastoral Poetry of the English Renaissance contains the text of the poems with brief headnotes giving date, source and other basic information, and footnotes with full annotation.

in Pastoral poetry of the English Renaissance