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Simon Mabon

Iraq, to quash domestic unrest, Saddam Hussein used chemical weapons against the state’s Kurdish population17 and also committed ‘atrocities on a predictably massive scale’ against both Kurdish and Shi’a dissidents.18 The most prominent of the Shi’a opposition parties, Al Dawla, fled to Iran after the execution of their spiritual guide, Ayatollah Muhammad Baqir Al ​Sadr. Disaffection among the Shi’a community was seen by many in Iran as a means of increasing their influence, resulting in the establishment of the SCIRI out of members of Al Da’wa to export Khomeini

in Houses built on sand
Open Access (free)
Competing claims to national identity
Alex J. Bellamy

nation can have many different meanings in different times and places. Moreover, invocations of national identity need not signify the same thing. Ljudevit Gaj’s ‘Croatia’ was very different from that of Ante Starïeviç. More recently, Franjo Tuœman’s conception of what Croatian national identity meant was very different to that of many opposition parties and the dissident intellectuals. This was seen, for instance, in the debate about the relationship between Bosnian Croats and Croatia proper. Finally, these five themes draw our attention to the importance of social

in The formation of Croatian national identity
Open Access (free)
The emergence of the British Labour Party
Rhiannon Vickers

the Labour Party was created out of the trade union movement to represent interests external to those of the parliamentary elite, and hence was an externally created, oppositional party.50 This oppositional nature of the Labour Party meant that the party’s foreign policy, unlike that of the Conservative Party, had for extensive periods in the twentieth century developed more as a response to the internal dynamics of the party, rather than as a response to actualities of the international situation. The advantage of being in opposition was that the party had more

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1
Open Access (free)
Alex J. Bellamy

programme or not) or, as in the case of the dissident intellectuals attempted to challenge those programmes or deconstruct the ‘big stories’ of national identity. To that end, Chapter 4 focuses on competing ideas of national identity articulated in 1990s Croatia by the government and its supporters, opposition parties and dissident intellectuals. The third level of analysis considers the ways that the ideas articulated in the first two levels were manifested and reinterpreted in social activity. Focusing on six case studies, the study at this level identifies contests

in The formation of Croatian national identity
Open Access (free)
‘Deutschland den Deutschen!’
Cas Mudde

Democratic Party, SPD), combined with the traditionally weak opposition of the Freie Demokratische Partei (Free Democratic Party, FDP), gave the NPD the opportunity to present itself as the only authentic (right-wing) opposition party. Within the media and scholarly community a substantial electoral success of the NPD was anticipated too. The German left-wing liberal weekly Die Zeit, for instance, reported already on 9 February 1968: In the fall of 1969, after the parliamentary election, the President will have to welcome a new party and a new parliamentary party leader to

in The ideology of the extreme right
A comparative analysis
Stuart Ball

better at holding their nerve – and even at staying united – whilst under pressure in government than they have been in the comparatively less-demanding role of opposition. This insecurity, which leads to inconsistencies, rushed decisions, grumbling in the ranks and mutterings about the leadership, has tended to diminish their effectiveness as an opposition party, even though they have often had a vulnerable government as a target. The Conservatives did not make much of their opportunities in 1906–14 or 1929–31, and made a surprisingly limited impact upon troubled

in The Conservatives in Crisis
Open Access (free)
Mark Garnett and Philip Lynch

fact that the ensuing boost in the polls proved short-lived lends extra credence to Ball’s suggestion that opposition parties often depend on government failings to improve their popularity. New Labour soon recovered its stride, and the opposition would have lapsed back to its 30 per cent rating even if it had been more credible. In hindsight, the Conservatives were regarded as opportunistic; had the government been more generally distrusted on a range of issues, the surge in Tory support would have lasted Introduction 5 much longer. Broughton also shows that the

in The Conservatives in Crisis
Dimitris Tsarouhas

her role in the welfare cuts of the early 1990s as Labour Minister, Sahlin has made a triumphant return after she lost the first chance to lead the party in the mid-1990s due to a financial scandal. During 2007, the SAP has kept a low profile and has been largely absent from the political debate. The government’s woes have helped the opposition parties to establish a commanding lead in the polls, and the SAP currently polls between 40 and 45 per cent of the vote. During 2007, the SAP has been clear in its condemnation of government policy, and Sahlin cowrote an

in In search of social democracy
From Afghanistan to Iraq
Kerry Longhurst

use of force.qxd 30/06/2004 From Afghanistan to Iraq 16:25 Page 79 79 CDU contended that it would support the operation only if the Bundeswehr was awarded more resources to carry out the mission effectively. Eventually, Germany’s participation was secured only through the support of the opposition parties, and the Bundestag approved the deployment by 497 votes to 130 on 29 August 2001. Operation ‘Essential Harvest’ was widely regarded as a success, though its initial one-month duration was viewed as having been too short. The proposed successor mission, ‘Amber

in Germany and the use of force
Open Access (free)
A never-ending story of mutual attraction and estrangement
Nikos Frangakis and Antonios D. Papayannides

; positions used to be more clear-cut and polemical in the 1980s than is now the case. It is interesting to note that ‘Europe’ or ‘Brussels’ is often considered by opposition parties or the press as a way to obstruct or influence government decisions. It is even more interesting 2444Ch7 3/12/02 Greece 2:03 pm Page 173 173 to see how little the intricacies – or indeed the basics – of EU decisionmaking are understood. Commission proposals or EP reports are quite often referred to as ‘Brussels decisions’.10 PASOK’s shift from Euro-negativism to Euro-enthusiasm has

in Fifteen into one?