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State-based institutions to advocate for gender equality
Anne Marie Goetz

national policy statement detailed budget implications of any of the proposed policies. As with national planning experiences in Morocco, Jamaica and Bangladesh, this failure to follow through recommendations with clear calculations of public expenditure implications is an important reason why WID/GAD policy commitments tend to stay trapped on paper. In sum, WID/GAD institutions in many of the case studies have developed a capacity for strategic planning, but what they still lack is a capacity to ensure that national policy commitments to the integration of gender in

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
Chinese puzzles and global challenges
R. Bin Wong

concerns will be far different than those between donor countries and the developing world. But what makes these transfers possible has little to do with democracy or even with consent in any explicit, consciously formulated manner. Historically, Chinese were drawn to make decisions favouring public expenditures because these helped to maintain peace and prosperity across their empire. Their situation contrasted sharply with early modern European rulers whose public expenditures went to war-making. Chinese governments began to take social expenditures seriously at an

in History, historians and development policy
Open Access (free)
Benjamin Worthy

transparency fix: Advocating legal rights and their alternatives in the pursuit of a visible state. University of Pittsburgh Law Review, 73(3), 443–503. Retrieved 15 December 2015 from: http://ssrn.com/ abstract=1918154. Fenster, M. (2015). Transparency in search of a theory. European Journal of Social Theory, 18(2), 150–167. Heald, D. (2006). Transparency as an instrumental value. In C. Hood and D. Heald (eds), Transparency: The Key to Better Governance? (pp. 59–73). Oxford: Oxford University Press for The British Academy. Heald, D. (2012). Why is transparency about public

in Science and the politics of openness
From disaster to devolution and beyond
Peter Lynch

Scotland when the party at Westminster resembled an English nationalist party in terms of political composition, outlook and opportunities. Thus, achieving some form of accommodation with devolution and lessening the anti-Scottish image of the party was partly undermined by efforts to exploit the West Lothian Question, Barnett formula and Scotland’s share of UK public expenditure. Such incoherence in territorial politics was hardly likely to assist the Scottish Conservatives, even though it may have assisted Tories in England. Though Scottish and Westminster priorities

in The Conservatives in Crisis
Visualising obesity as a public health concern in 1970s and 1980s Britain
Jane Hand

disease in terms of a rich–poor divide. Recognition of such a divide gained national prominence with the publication of the Black Report (1980), which explored the social distribution of mortality and morbidity in the thirty years since the establishment of the National Health Service. 61 It documented widespread disparities between rich and poor in terms of health, which were not being adequately addressed by the NHS. Presented as it was to an incoming Conservative government intent on cutting public expenditure, the

in Balancing the self
Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

commitments came under immediate scrutiny. There were five main reasons why this was so. 1 The new government wished to make inroads into the total level of public expenditure. Firstly, it placed a great burden on taxpayers – and they wished to reduce taxes. Secondly, it was seen as a deterrent to private investment as high government borrowing was thought to ‘crowd out’ funds which could be used by industry and commerce. The social security bill was the biggest single item in the public finances so it was an inevitable target. 2 Margaret Thatcher had pledged to ‘roll back

in Understanding British and European political issues
Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

that it must spend a significantly higher proportion of its national income and public expenditure on health care. Primary health care is critical to performance. GP services must, therefore, be improved and be made more sensitive to needs. ● ● ● ● Health ● 49 Health Care is a government priority. If it fails to deliver significant improvements in terms of more treatments, shorter waiting lists and reduced waiting times for treatment, it will have to accept the electoral consequences. Some criticisms Despite the political consensus which has developed over

in Understanding British and European political issues
Philip Lynch

, but Labour would suffer under this scenario given the low levels of Conservative support in Scotland. Furthermore, it would not be easy to identify exclusively English legislation as 188 Philip Lynch under the Barnett formula decisions on spending in England impact upon the size of the block grant allocated to the Scottish Parliament. Denying Scottish MPs a say on English legislation would reduce their influence over public expenditure in Scotland. The government opposed the proposal, though the House of Commons Procedure Committee did recommend that existing

in The Conservatives in Crisis
Open Access (free)
Gareth Millward

-line tool in reducing unnecessary public expenditure, and an investment whose benefits far outweighed the potential costs. These could be more accurately measured due to increased statistical monitoring both within Britain and by bodies such as the WHO. The public, too, expressed risk in different ways. The general swell of approval for poliomyelitis vaccines showed a demand for protection from the disease. In the 1970s, such demands for protection were framed by voluntary organisations, consumer groups and advisory bodies. Moreover, while the

in Vaccinating Britain
Sunil S. Amrith

frequently negligible; the equipment in many public hospitals is often obsolescent and unusable; and, the buildings are in a dilapidated state… the availability of essential drugs is minimal; the capacity of the facilities is grossly inadequate. ‘Grossly inadequate’ is a phrase that appears all too often in the report. There is little doubt that health has not been one of the Indian state’s priorities since independence. Only in the last few years has public expenditure on health in India risen above the level of 0.8 or 0.9 percent of GDP, which is India’s historical

in History, historians and development policy