Robert Z. Birdwell

Go Tell It on the Mountain sheds light on James Baldwin’s response to his Pentecostal religious inheritance. Baldwin writes protagonist John Grimes’s experience of “salvation” as an act of his own break with his past and the inauguration of a new vocation as authorial witness of his times. This break is premised on the experience of kairos, a form of time that was derived from Baldwin’s experience of Pentecostalism. Through John Grimes’s experience, Baldwin represents a break with the past that begins with the kairotic moment and progresses through the beginnings of self-love and the possibility of freedom enabled by this love. This essay contributes a new perspective on discussions of Baldwin’s representation of time and his relationship to Christianity.

James Baldwin Review
Lessons Learned for Engagement in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States
Logan Cochrane

). One reason that one might expect to see a rise of evaluation work over time within South Sudan is because of a recognition by donors in the 2000s that thousands of interventions had taken place but there was a dearth of evidence about what impacts had resulted ( Bennett et al. , 2010 ; Norad, 2016 ). These donors have continued to operate in the newly independent Republic of South Sudan, many of which have published evaluation reports identified by this study. Synthesis of Lessons Learned The following synthesis of lessons learned is presented based on

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Transnational dynamics in post-genocidal restitutions
Elise Pape

Taking its starting point from a socio-anthropological study combining biographical interviews, semi-structured interviews and ethnographic observations collected between 2016 and 2018 in Germany, France and the United States among Ovaherero and Nama activists, and also members of different institutions and associations, this article focuses on the question of human remains in the current struggle for recognition and reparation of the genocide of the Ovaherero and Nama from a transnational perspective. First, the text shows the ways in which the memory of human remains can be considered as a driving force in the struggle of the affected communities. Second, it outlines the main points of mismatches of perspective between descendants of the survivors and the responsible museums during past restitutions of human remains from German anthropological collections. Third, the article more closely examines the resources of Ovaherero in the United States in the struggle for recognition and reparation, the recent discovery of Namibian human remains in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City and the questions that it raises.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Clara Duterme

Established during the Guatemalan Peace Process, the Oslo Accord contemplates the question of compensating the victims of internal armed conflict. Not only was this accord founded on the principles of victims rights, but it also intends to contribute to the democratic reconstruction of Guatemalan society through a process of recognition of victims status and memory – intended to have a reconciling function. The article focuses on the work of two organisations implementing the Oslo Accord and aims to analyse the discourses and practices of the local actors and their perception of the application of victims rights. Civil society actors and members of the National Compensation Programme demonstrate different approaches both in practical work and in representations of what is right. However, revendication of local cultural values is present in all actors discourse, revealing their ambiguous position in regard to state government.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Valérie Robin Azevedo

In recent years, exhumation campaigns of mass graves resulting from the armed conflict (1980–2000) between the Maoist guerrillas of PCP-Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) and the States armed forces have increased in Peru. People in rural Andes, the most marginalised sectors of national society, which were also particularly affected by the war, are the main group concerned with exhumations. This article examines the handling, flow and re-appropriation of exhumed human remains in public space to inform sociopolitical issues underlying the reparation policies implemented by the State, sometimes with the support of human rights NGOs. How do the families of victims become involved in this unusual return of their dead? Have the exhumations become a new repertoire of collective action for Andean people seeking to access their fundamental rights and for recognition of their status as citizens? Finally, what do these devices that dignify the dead reveal about the internal workings of Peruvian society – its structural inequities and racism – which permeate the social fabric?

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
John Harries, Linda Fibiger, Joan Smith, Tal Adler, and Anna Szöke

This article will query the ethics of making and displaying photographs of human remains. In particular, we will focus on the role of photography in constituting human remains as specimens, and the centrality of the creation and circulation of photographic images to the work of physical anthropology and bioarchaeology. This work has increasingly become the object of ethical scrutiny, particularly in the context of a (post)colonial politics of recognition in which indigenous people seek to recover dominion over their looted material heritage, including the remains of their dead. This ethical concern extends to the question of how and under what circumstances we may display photographs of human remains. Moreover, this is not just a matter of whether and when we should or should not show photographs of the remains of the dead. It is a question of how these images are composed and produced. Our discussion of the ethics of the image is, therefore, indivisible from a consideration of the socio-technical process by which the photographic image is produced, circulated and consumed.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
A Response to the Journal of Humanitarian Affairs Special Issue on Innovation in Humanitarian Action (JHA, 1:3)
Anna Skeels

that needs to be in place for responsible innovation in a humanitarian setting. We also capture what participation might mean at different phases of the innovation process, for example in relation to the problem recognition stage: When the local community are engaged in problem identification through inclusive, user-centred design processes, people in these local organisations – using their local knowledge – hold often-untapped potential to develop game-changing innovations. ( Elrha, 2018a ) A promising partnership between Elrha and MIT’s D-Lab is enabling us to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Olivia Umurerwa Rutazibwa

though the international community had found its way to the capital, Hargeisa, Somaliland had arguably become the most stable democracy in the region, even as it awaited international recognition of its independence. It seemed to me, therefore, that the most salient question was not how intervention could be more effective and efficient, but whether it was necessary in the first place. Was Western presence itself constitutive of the problems facing ‘host’ countries? In her recent book Decolonising Intervention: International Statebuilding in

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Gender Equality and Culture in Humanitarian Action
Ricardo Fal-Dutra Santos

( Enloe, 2004 : chapter 12). More relevantly, gender norms shape specific violent behaviour of concern to humanitarian actors, such as sexual violence during conflict ( Enloe, 2004 : chapter 7). Despite the growing recognition of the impact of culture on the behaviour of primary duty bearers (e.g. Terry and McQuinn, 2018 ), humanitarian efforts remain confined to engaging primary duty bearers themselves, and to influencing specific forms of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Why Building Back Better Means More than Structural Safety
Bill Flinn

is not likely to harm anyone; it is not so easy if a low-quality concrete building might precipitously collapse in an earthquake potentially causing serious injury or even death to the inhabitants 8 . Two considerations help to take the agony out of the decision. The first is the recognition that safety is just one of the many factors that defines a good house. It may really be the case that a healthy house is more important than a safe house especially if the prevailing hazard is not that likely to threaten life. The second is the probable lack of funds, both

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs