Open Access (free)
Simon Mabon

carefully crafted both a narrative and political infrastructure that draws upon an array of different mechanisms of control to regulate life. While religion, ideology and tribal loyalties have been moulded to meet domestic and regional needs, ruling elites have also created formal structures with the aim of ensuring the survival of the regime. Constitutions have been designed to draw upon cultural reserves to ensure that regimes are often taken to be representative of states, while opponents are often marginalised. They are imbued with a range of mechanisms to help

in Houses built on sand
Open Access (free)
Witchcraft and the symbolics of hierarchy in late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century Finland
Raisa Maria Toivo

of the ruling group. But equally, it might serve as a vehicle for criticism and complaint, thus providing a valuable opportunity for malcontents to vent their dissatisfaction with, and opposition to, the ruling élite.33 16 Beyond the witch trials As Stuart Clark puts it, ‘witchcraft was constituted by an act of revolt’, and represented the opposite of perfect government.34 In some European laws, including the Swedish Rural Law of 1442, witchcraft appeared among the statutes against treason (högmålabalken).35 Vidskepelse was considered as inversionary as

in Beyond the witch trials
A dialogue with Islam as a pattern of conflict resolution and a security approach vis-à-vis Islamism
Bassam Tibi

, Islamism matters in the first place as an alternative political order envisioned by the Islamists as counter-elites opposed to the ruling elites. To be sure, in considering the professed commitment to democracy, this is not to suggest that the ruling elites in the Maghreb, or in any other part of the world of Islam, are more democratic than the challenging Islamist counter-elites. Religious fundamentalism as

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Cameron Ross

’s republics: a threat to its territorial integrity?’, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Research Report, 2:20 (14 May 1993), 36. 18 Dunlop, The Rise of Russia, p. 62. 19 M. Filippov and O. Shevtsov, ‘Asymmetric bilateral bargaining in the new Russian Federation: a path dependence explanation’, Communist and PostCommunist Studies, 32 (1999), 70. 20 J. T. Ishiyama, ‘The Russian proto-parties and the national republics’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 29: 4 (1996), 397. 21 See D. Lane and C. Ross, From Communism to Capitalism: Ruling Elites from Gorbachev to Yeltsin, (New

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Open Access (free)
Simon Mabon

structures and ultimately, political life. With its focus on the regulation of life, Islam has long possessed a political dimension. As we have seen, however, with the plurality of views and interpretations, political decisions require legitimisation –​often by the ulema –​who justify rule by stressing that their authority is a consequence of either the sovereignty of Divine Law, or the contract between ruler and ruled.40 The relationship between ruling elites and prominent clerics is then of paramount importance when considering stability within a territory, where human

in Houses built on sand
Open Access (free)
The end of the dream
Simon Mabon

increasingly fractious relationship between ordnung and ortung, new sites of contestation emerge. Amid an influx of people from different backgrounds, latent racism increases, often resulting in acts of violence against incoming residents. The emergence of an increasingly tech-​savvy generation poses a new set of challenges for ruling elites, particularly across urban environments. There are also longer-​term implications for those displaced from their homes within the context of the collapse of internal and external politics. Those forced to flee from Syria, Yemen or Iraq

in Houses built on sand
Open Access (free)
Association and distinction in politics and religion
Rodney Barker

The degree of the private cultivation of identity, beyond any public gaze, differs from instance to instance, as does its relation with the narrative presented to the world beyond the elite. But it is always present. The rituals of Negara, the nineteenth-century Balinese state described by Clifford Geertz, provide an example of an exceptionally high degree of solipsistic identity cultivation by a ruling elite. There was in a very real sense more ritual than ruling, and the king's palace was a temple rather than either a residence or an office or

in Cultivating political and public identity
Open Access (free)
The international system and the Middle East
Raymond Hinnebusch

The Ottoman system was the antithesis of the European nation-state system. It was a patrimonial empire headed by a Sultan-Caliph whose rule was legitimated by the implementation of the Islamic law, the outward sign of the supranational Islamic umma . The ruling elite’s multi-national origins reflected the universalistic aspect of the state: Greeks were prominent in the bureaucracy; Mamluks (slave soldiers) of Christian origin rose to top military and political office, while in the provinces Turkish landed notables and Arab religious leaders ( ulama ) linked state

in The international politics of the Middle East
Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

As Dogu Ergil writes, the disconnection of the Turkish society from its past allowed the ruling elite to see the people as an entity ready to be molded according to their vision of what society and the nation should be. 2 Accordingly, separation from culture of the past was not confined to religious practices. In the pursuit for the unique Turkish nationalism ( Milliyetcilik ), different from the cultures and civilization in its proximity, Turkey severed ties with basic features of the Arab, Persian and Islamic worlds, emphasizing instead the modern and Western

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Simon Mabon

demonstration of agency –​seen to be possible even within bare life3 –​amid efforts to improve political life. After decades of political marginalisation where ruling elites had created political and social conditions tantamount to bare life, there was little hope of lasting change. Although the decade prior to the uprisings had been punctured by political protest, these efforts were largely unsuccessful as instruments of state security pervading all aspects of society were able to crush the protesters. At this point, grievances and resentment continued to fester, as regimes

in Houses built on sand