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15 Afterword1 Nina Fishman The idea for three international conferences examining social democracy was conceived by an informal group of British historians in the autumn of 2003. The need for an open-ended, serious examination of the past, present and future of social democracy was self-evident. Sufficient time had elapsed since the Wende to enable flexible, inquisitive historians to venture onto the old terrain of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to test the preNovember 1989 narratives.2 It was also an apposite moment to engage in future-gazing, a

in In search of social democracy
The European Union and social democratic identity

9 Reformism in a ‘conservative’ system: the European Union and social democratic identity1 Gerassimos Moschonas Introduction Although the foundations and reference points on which the historical social democratic movement was built have not been completely undermined or exhausted, since the 1970s social democracy has been experiencing considerable change. During the 1990s in particular, social democracy underwent a phase of programmatic renewal. The evidence for this renewal abounds: openness to feminist ideas, minority rights, ecology, the adoption of a more

in In search of social democracy
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in the tendency to regard liberal democracy as the final stage of modernity, rather than as a key but transitional stage in the democratisation of society. This assumption is latent within Marshall’s famous account, where social rights are thought to complete the journey towards full citizenship such that the conjunction of market, democratic and welfarist institutions represents TZP9 4/25/2005 178 4:57 PM Page 178 After the new social democracy the summit of the modern project (Marshall and Bottomore, 1992). Whatever the specifics of Marshall’s theory, he

in After the new social democracy
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evading the conceptual barriers between Left and Right, public and private, state and market, justice and efficiency, security and flexibility, equality and freedom. It is this radicalisation that Giddens refers to as the NSD.1 By transcending these dichotomies – rather than simply trading off between them – we provide ourselves with an alternative not only to the ‘Old Left’ and ‘New Right’, but also to the siren TZP1 4/25/2005 12 4:49 PM Page 12 After the new social democracy calls of nationalist, ethnic and religious fundamentalists. For if we can find a way to

in After the new social democracy
Credibility, dirigisme and globalisation

4 The political economy of French social democratic economic policy autonomy 1997–2002: credibility, dirigisme and globalisation Ben Clift Introduction: the crisis of social democracy The U-turn of French Socialism in 1983 saw a retreat from egalitarian redistribution, full employment and social justice as the priorities of economic policy. A prolonged period of ideological and programmatic flux ensued. The manifest failure of a decade of Socialist Government to make any impression on the soaring unemployment figures was devastating. This, acting in tandem with

in In search of social democracy
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appeals to some notion of proceduralism (see below) where what is important is common adherence to just rules rather than the manipulation of outcomes, yet without the prominence that market libertarians give to entitlement, since reciprocity preserves the notion of moral desert (cf. Gauthier, 1986). Procedural justice Here, the most convincing account remains that of Nozick (1974) who contrasts procedural theory with ‘end-state’ theories of justice. Procedural- TZP2 4/25/2005 36 4:50 PM Page 36 After the new social democracy ism is concerned with the means that

in After the new social democracy
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This chapter discusses the differences between productivism and post-productivism in relation to social democracy. It shows that while post-productivism does not abandon the aims of increases in growth, productivity and well-being, it does recontextualise them in terms of what are called reproductive values. These values refer to the ecological and social conditions of a productive economy or conditions which that economy is increasingly unable to replenish. This chapter highlights the role of ecowelfare in guiding social democracy in the direction of a post-employment society.

in After the new social democracy
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(equality of powers plus diverse reciprocity) that I believe a more radical politics should aim towards. Chapter 3 argued that the NSD derives from and embeds a security state that has remodelled the welfare state and reconfigured needs as risks and fears; the security state was then further explored in terms of New Labour’s approach to information and ICTs. In the last chapter I then questioned the scope of the NSD, showing that ‘old’ social democracy is still very much alive, though not without difficulties. However, I also suggested that productivist reforms are not

in After the new social democracy
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This chapter offers a summary and critique of the new social democracy (NSD), focusing on the New Labour as the best exemplar of these ideas. It explains that the NSD is based upon five key principles: community, meritocracy, reciprocity, inclusion and pragmatism. This chapter suggests that community only offers a middle way between collectivism/egalitarianism and individualism, meritocracy is too weak a principle, and responsibility and reciprocity are far more complex than new social democrats imagine. It argues that the NSD is not a new politics, but is at best the first steps on a long march back towards truly progressive ideals, one from which valuable lessons can be learned, if only about how not to proceed.

in After the new social democracy

2 Fiscal policies, social spending and economic performance in France, Germany and the UK since 1970 Norman Flynn Introduction This chapter looks at the post-1970 development of social policy, its fiscal implications and economic consequences in three European countries. Its purpose is to test a stereotypical ‘left’ proposition, formulated in defence of European social democracy against neo-liberalism, such as: There is a ‘European Social Model’, incorporating a high level of social protection for unemployment and retirement, which, since 1973, has been

in In search of social democracy