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views of John Stuart Mill and Isaiah Berlin on ‘negative’ and ‘positive’ freedom. Then we focus on the central issue of freedom and the state, concentrating on three major areas of dispute: conscientious objection, state acquisition of private property, civil disobedience and terrorism. We end with some observations on the cultural environment conducive to freedom and reflect on the problems of freedom

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Attitudes towards subversive movements and violent organisations

THE DEMOCRATIC POLITY’S struggle against manifestations of extra-parliamentary extremism and political violence is accompanied by a similar and perhaps even more acute quandary than its contest with political parties. In this struggle the government possesses the means to substantially restrict the freedom of expression and association of its citizens, consequently harming a number of their democratic rights. However, in its struggle against extremism, violence and, at times, even terrorism, the democracy is sometimes impelled to employ

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
The dynamics of multilateralism in Eurasia

have also used these institutions to signal their intentions and to reinforce their domestic identity. None the less, international institutions in Eurasia have neither mitigated the security dilemma nor facilitated cooperative approaches to the new security challenges of transnational terrorism, ethnic strife, environmental degradation, food and energy scarcity, drug trafficking, unchecked population growth, rampant migration and organised crime.2 Eurasia hosts several variations in institutional forms, including the CIS, GUUAM, and the SCO. Yet these three

in Limiting institutions?
Israeli security experience as an international brand

experience in conflict, urban warfare, and dealing with terrorism. As an American journalist wrote: ‘everybody’s favourite soldier of fortune is an Israeli with military experience’ (Johnson 2010 : n.p.). To illustrate this phenomenon, I will start with an example. A security company owned by an Israeli in the United States (US) was asked to set up security checkpoints in New Orleans after hurricane Katrina

in Security/ Mobility

in the creation of the ‘Shanghai Five’ in 1996, a grouping that was subsequently enlarged with the addition of Uzbekistan in 1999 and formalised in 2001 with the creation of the SCO.5 The Shanghai process generated cooperation agreements in various issue areas, ranging from border disputes to economic cooperation to anti-terrorism measures. In this way, China established a firm diplomatic presence in the region. The September 11 terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, DC, 105 2504Chap6 7/4/03 12:40 pm Page 106 Security threats however, have had a lasting

in Limiting institutions?
A dialogue with Islam as a pattern of conflict resolution and a security approach vis-à-vis Islamism

. Political Islam and post-bipolar security in the Middle East As a recent development, the politicization of religion is not restricted to Islam, insofar as it can be observed in other religions as well, be it Hinduism or Judaism – among others. 3 When it comes to Islam one cannot escape witnessing the Bin Laden and, earlier, the Iran connection of terrorism. 4 In Algeria the

in Redefining security in the Middle East

partners. By incorporating the experiences of the PfP into NATO planning, the alliance may be in a stronger position to adapt to current and future challenges.3 Almost six years of PfP cooperative planning and operations in Eurasia have laid part of the foundation to counter such non-traditional threats as terrorism, the proliferation of WMD, ethnic conflict, resource depletion and narcotics trafficking in Eurasia. The PfP provides the principal mechanism through which NATO cooperates with individual and regional groupings of 166 2504Chap9 7/4/03 12:41 pm Page 167

in Limiting institutions?
What contribution to regional security?

settlement of all disputes by the means and in accordance with the principles set out in the CSCE documents’.7 The signatories committed themselves to resisting aggression, violence, terrorism and lawlessness in order to restore peace and justice while relying, as a basis of their common understanding, on the general principles of the UN Charter and Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. The BSEC defines security in a comprehensive way, referring not only to its military dimension, but also to political, economic and social factors. Consequently, in order to

in Limiting institutions?
From Afghanistan to Iraq

. One of the many effects of that day was the emergence of a fundamental difference between US and German perspectives regarding the use of force and how best to combat the sources of global terrorism. The transformation that US foreign policy underwent after (and arguably even before) September 11 brought into focus the peculiarities and continuities present within German security thinking. The Longhurst, Germany and the use of force.qxd 80 30/06/2004 16:25 Page 80 Germany and the use of force next section discusses at some length the evolution of US

in Germany and the use of force
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security might continue to come under threat. Such contingencies could arise from regional conflicts or instability due to ethnic and other tension inside one country or between MUP_Torbion_08_Ch8 170 22/9/03, 1:53 pm A new NATO 171 countries; or they could be external, from the south or from the east, especially in an era of modern missile technology, weapons of mass 2 destruction and terrorism. Second, should a new alliance take the place of NATO? NATO members, and in particular the United States, concluded that it would be easier and cheaper to build on

in Destination Europe