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continuity, innovation and renewal

organisational elements, which enabled it to present itself once again as a credible party of government. Moreover, the renewal of Rodríguez Zapatero’s mandate at the March 2008 general election effectively neutralised charges that he was simply an ‘accidental’ prime minister, who owed office to the particular circumstances in which the 2004 general election took place, just days after Al-Qaeda terrorist attacks on Madrid. The chapter adopts a chronological approach. First, the party’s transformation from near irrelevance into a party of government under Felipe González will

in In search of social democracy
From Afghanistan to Iraq

transatlantic relations.5 The terrorist attacks on the US on September 11 provided a powerful source of justification, indeed self-righteousness, for those who had sought to revise US thinking and espoused the merits of pre-emptive military strikes. Thus over the course of the subsequent twelve months Bush’s foreign and security policy came to be imbued with clear traits of neoconservative thinking which were ultimately codified in a new US national security strategy in 2002 and subsequently applied to Baghdad in 2003. This policy was also underpinned by a powerful intellectual

in Germany and the use of force
Israel and a Palestinian state

degree of tolerance for Hamas that the Arafat regime will permit. During the active first years of the peace process, the risk of radicalism from Hamas may have made Israel more willing to negotiate with the Arafat regime. Thus, before the second intifada , the regime was prepared to co-operate with Israeli authorities to thwart Hamas terrorist attacks in Israel. 21

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Open Access (free)

with erratic policy-making combined to deepen the region’s poverty and undermine many (but not all) of Africa’s old dictators. And for the Middle East, the view that authoritarian rule lies at the root of the region’s failure to diversify away from dependence on oil, and to create more employment for its young population, has gained converts with the debate over the causes of the terrorist attacks on the United States on 11 September 2001. This is not to say that democracy will necessarily do any better in these regions; but it is certainly the case that autocracy

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)

in the 1935. But the 2001 terrorist attack is unlikely to garner any such divisions among Americans. The continuing narrative Democratization is a continuing process as the internal boundaries of American nationhood are challenged and redrawn in various ways, for instance by the Japanese American movement to win compensation for wartime incarceration, and by the United States’ international roles in defending liberal democracy against alternative ideologies and belief systems – what the political scientist Samuel Huntington calls the ‘clash of civilizations’ (1996

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)

personality. Before the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, politics in the House of Representatives were complicated by the strained relationships between the leaders of the Democrats and Republicans, particularly those between Richard Gephardt and Richard Armey. During the 104th Congress, Democrats attempted to make political capital by demonising House Speaker Newt Gingrich. A similar attempt had been made on Senate leader Thomas Daschle by Republicans in the 107th Congress. It can also be a matter of party differences. Consequently, a change in which party ‘controls

in The United States Congress
From the ‘militant’ to an ‘immunised’ route?

the FBI wider authority in its response to terrorism, did not seem to effect a radical change in agency activities. According to Deputy Director Robert M. Bryant, the new policy will not change the FBI’s long tradition of respect for civil rights. 26 The tragedy of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon may indeed lead to a change in United States’ counter-terrorist policy. However, on the basis of President Bush’s declaration as well as the reactions of the directors of the various security agencies, it seems that

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence

intervention1 Osama Bin Laden, the ghost behind the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, came out of a market of violence. Sudan’s and later Afghanistan’s territories 219 Georg Elwert enabled his group to train and organise their troops. Their place was among the warlords; they were respected as partners. The markets of violence, which enabled them to develop their organisational network, were older. Paradoxically it was the violent environment which gave them the time they needed to find, by trial and error, more and more efficient modes of operation for their ideological

in Potentials of disorder
Locating the monsters in the machine: an investigation of faith

communities that are often portrayed as providing moral leadership, social networks and access to hard-to-reach groups. Yet on the other hand, faith has become an unsettling aspect of multiculturalism, not only in the UK, but in Europe as a whole, especially in the terrorist attacks that came after September 11, 2001 (Dinham et al., 2009). More specifically, in the UK the disturbances in Bradford, Burnley and Oldham in 2001 and the subsequent 7/7 bombings in London in 2005 have led to public criticism of the concept of multiculturalism for its overly tolerant approaches to

in Science and the politics of openness
The case of Maghrebi Muslims in France

development, the State sought to regulate the halal market in order to prevent the potential rewards brought about by its profits falling into the hands of Islamist groups which do not conform to the ideal of ‘republican integration’. In 1990, following the terrorist attacks in Paris of September 1986, the ‘Rushdie affair’12 and the first occurrence of the ‘headscarf affair’ in Creil,13 the Interior Minister Charles Pasqua (in charge of religious matters) sought to encourage the creation of an institution representative of Islam in France in order to have only one

in Qualities of food