Core historical concepts reconsidered
Adrian Zimmermann

political democracy – through the process of globalisation. The concentration of economic power within one nation-state, for example Berlusconi in Italy, can also undermine a democratic political culture. The debate on socialisation after the First World War The period following the First World War and the Russian, German and Austrian revolutions marked the first zenith of economic democracy. The M1738 - CALLAGHAN TEXT.indd 270 3/8/09 12:13:45 Economic democracy 271 reason for this was twofold. First, the institutions of the war economy had already established a

in In search of social democracy
Open Access (free)
Robert Mackay

derail the entire war economy. Food, in short, was political dynamite; Woolton’s task was to so manage the consumption of food that its explosive potential was never released.18 An early indication of official recognition of the political importance of food was discernible even before Woolton’s arrival at the Ministry after Chamberlain’s reshuffle of early April 1940. The Ministry could not control world prices, of course, and food items in the Ministry of Labour cost-of-living index had risen by sixteen points in the two months to the end of October 1939. This was

in Half the battle
Patrick Doyle

the British war economy. As a country with a large agricultural sector, it was well-positioned to help ensure Great Britain received its required foodstuffs despite the German navy's efforts to disrupt imports. The Great War proved to be a relatively plentiful time for Irish farmers as the state guaranteed the prices of agricultural produce. Over the course of the conflict Irish agricultural produce doubled in value which, despite the rise in wage and price inflation, represented a bonanza for Irish farmers. 4 Patrick Kavanagh colourfully recalled the generous

in Civilising rural Ireland
Germany, Sweden and Australia compared
Ashley Lavelle

necessary to finance social reforms beneficial to workers and the poor, but the generation of such growth hinges on developing policies favourable to capital. The post-war boom seemed to suggest that policies for labour and capital were not mutually exclusive. This explains why the post-war period is widely regarded as a ‘golden age’ for social democracy. It is arguable in all three case studies examined below that the most significant social democratic measures were implemented on the strength of the post-war economy. When the boom ended, so largely did the reforms. The

in In search of social democracy
Interpreting the unions–party link
Steve Ludlam

from the war economy, and had underpinned the post-war settlement, above all the prioritisation of full employment. The latter implied restraint in wage bargaining. When, during the war, William Beveridge sought reassurance over this implication, the TUC insisted that the employment objective would have to be modified if it implied ‘methods incompatible with the rights of workpeople and the objects of Trade Unionism’; but it conceded that free collective bargaining might be restrained given a context of socially progressive economic intervention (TUC 1944: 419

in Interpreting the Labour Party
Robert Mackay

-Downes, London War Notes 1939–1945 (Longman, 1972), p. 61. 15 W. Hancock and M. Gowing, The British War Economy (HMSO, 1949), p. 209. 16 The miners at Betteshanger had gone on strike over pay. Although the three leaders of their local trade union branch were jailed and all the men were fined, the strike continued until settled in the miners’ favour nineteen days later. Their victory was reinforced by the release of the imprisoned officials soon after. 17 Doris Scott, recorded interview, Imperial War Museum audiotape, The Home Front 1939–1945; Molly Weir, in M. Nicholson (ed

in Half the battle
Robert Mackay

the London Passenger Transport Board even before war was declared, signalling the important strategic role it envisaged for the network. From the start trains were to have as their priority the servicing of the needs of the military and the war economy. Civilian passengers had to make do with what was left after those needs had been met. The knock-on effect of all this in terms of queuing, overcrowding and curtailment of social life constituted one of the more depressing features of wartime life as it was experienced by most people. Some compensation ought to have

in Half the battle
Neil Macmaster

contact 153 conflict rested as much on the civilian populations that sustained war economies (now subject to direct attack, bombing and demoralising propaganda), as on the strength of regular armies. The growth of new forms of mass media, particularly film and radio, greatly increased the ability of states to develop powerful forms of propaganda that aimed covertly to alter or manipulate mass attitudes, frequently through nonrational processes (use of symbols, manipulation of emotions and prejudice).2 The French state, like most western powers, had since the First

in Burning the veil
The organisation of war-escalation in the Krajina region of Croatia 1990–91
Hannes Grandits and Carolin Leutloff

of weapons, trained soldiers, the maintenance of a functioning war economy, and, further, the evolution of an institutional infrastructure, made it possible that this local conflict could develop into a war. Initiatives from outside, for the Krajina Serbs, especially from Serbia and from the now Serbian-dominated JNA, were of crucial importance in the outbreak of war in the Krajina region in Croatia.  1 Many colleagues helped us with their comments and criticisms in the writing of this chapter. We are especially grateful to Joel M. Halpern for his work on the

in Potentials of disorder
Open Access (free)
Machines of mass incineration in fact, fiction, and forensics
Robert Jan van Pelt

client for the service. But in the death camps, fuel was a big concern. Not only was it strictly rationed within the context of the war economy, but also the expense could not be charged to a third party: it came out of the general operation budget. Indeed, fuel economy was one of the reasons for the firm of Topf & Söhne being so successful in its business relations with the SS. In the history of cremation, DHR.indb 121 5/15/2014 12:51:14 PM 122  Robert Jan van Pelt there was no precedent for either the cremation capacity or the economies achieved in Auschwitz

in Destruction and human remains