The example of the German principality of Waldeck
Andreas Flurschütz da Cruz

British throne after 1714.29 The regiments provided to the British had, as a matter of fact, not been created specifically for this purpose, at least not all of them. In fact, the Waldeckian 25 HStAM, 117, no. 1440, Stuttgart, 28 March 1688. 26 ASVe, Senato, Deliberazioni, Mar, Registri, 154; Peter H. Wilson, War, State and Society in Württemberg, 1677–1793 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 91. At the same time, 1688, Württemberg started another military project together with Venice: Rudolf von Andler, ‘Die württembergischen Regimenter in Griechenland

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Raymond Hinnebusch

, an American attempt to secure global hegemony that was intimately connected to a struggle over the international oil market. Finally, despite the grave issues at stake, it was the peculiarities of the policy process inside the two main protagonist states that made a violent resolution of the conflict unavoidable. Without the interaction of all these levels, there would have been no second Gulf War. Level one: formation of a ‘war state’ Saddam’s Hussein’s decision to invade Kuwait provoked the second Gulf War but this was

in The international politics of the Middle East
Catherine Baker

expanding history of state socialism and race, the impact of the 1990s wars on memory and identity set the Yugoslav region apart; yet the geopolitics of Non-Alignment had already distinguished Yugoslavia during the Cold War. State socialism, postcoloniality and ‘connected histories’ of the USSR and eastern Europe Historians already acknowledge the Cold War politics of envisioning state socialist space as a moral identity opposed to imperialism and capitalism, versus a USA built on racialised oppression, as a geopolitics of race. US

in Race and the Yugoslav region
Open Access (free)
Catherine Baker

or end of the Cold War. State socialism's racial exceptionalism, locating race and racism in American capitalism's historic wrongs while detaching race from myths of European civilisation and modernity, was one subsidiary contract (Todorova 2006 ); the further disidentifications from whiteness contingently available through Yugoslav Non-Aligned anti-colonialism were another. Whiteness, still, is woven into identity narratives throughout the Yugoslav region – whether unavowed, underneath symbolic geographies contrasting ‘Europe’ with an Other

in Race and the Yugoslav region
Jürgen Habermas and the European left
Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

for the sake of the victims themselves but additionally as a means of ‘reassuring ourselves [i.e. all Europeans] of our own political identity’. He endeavoured to keep in mind ‘the gruesome features of a century that “invented” the gas chambers, total war, state-sponsored genocide, and extermination camps’, but at the same time not to become ‘transfixed by the gruesomeness of the century’, not to evade ‘conscious assessment of the horror that finally

in Antisemitism and the left
Open Access (free)
The discovery, commemoration and reinterment of eleven Alsatian victims of Nazi terror, 1947– 52
Devlin M. Scofield

populace of the brutality and inhumanity of the Nazi regime. Badenese authorities similarly recognised the importance and potential symbolic value of the local populace’s participation in the commemorative ceremonies. The discovery of the eleven bodies on 5 May 1947 coincided with a critical moment in the re-​establishment of German self-​government in the French Occupation zone.14 The first elections for a post-​war state legislature in Baden were scheduled for 18 May. The reinterment ritual, therefore, represented a venue in which the local German populace could

in Human remains in society
Jenny Edkins

calls social fantasy – to work.34 When a security issue arises, what is happening is not that external threats are being recognised or new dangers assessed. It is something quite different that is taking place. The inherent insecurity in the object concerned – generally the state – is being concealed. When something is impossible, one way of concealing that impossibility is to shift the blame somewhere else. During the Cold War, state insecurity in the West was blamed on the Soviet Union. The West would have been secure but for the Soviet threat. The impossibility of

in Change and the politics of certainty
German reception of French subsidies in the Thirty Years’ War
Tryntje Helfferich

, 1984); Peter H. Wilson, War, State and Society in Württemberg, 1677–1793 (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1995). 38 Samuel von Pufendorf, The Present State of Germany, trans. by Edmund Bohun, ed. by Michael J. Seidler (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2007), p. 380. 58 Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation a care for the public good – even though others are struggling and they, too, will be devoured by Polyphemus after the rest have been consumed.39 Decades later, in an empire reeling from numerous French-initiated conflicts, such sentiments would be

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

could be adapted to a very positive role if socialist parties acquired power by constitutional means. This belief reached its apogee in Britain during and just after the Second World War. State planning helped to defeat Britain’s enemies and could, it was believed, win the war against ignorance, poverty and want at home. Social reformism was the dominant ideology throughout most of the post-war era

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Virtuousness, virtuality and virtuosity in NATO’s representation of the Kosovo campaign
Andreas Behnke

Charter, or it becomes, as authorised by the UN Security Council, an execution, sanction, or enforcement of international law. 12 War as a duel between states has been replaced by a discriminatory concept in which the warring state becomes a ‘criminal’ or rogue state. Although the UN Charter constitutes a major modification of the law of war, the Western imagination goes much

in Mapping European security after Kosovo