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Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

moral identity – an entirely praiseworthy activity. In the Middle Ages, Saint Augustine, in The City of God (413–27), regarded the state and politics as little more than a regrettable necessity (‘the badge of Man’s lost innocence’) and an instrument of maintaining order. Thomas Aquinas, writing in the thirteenth century, claimed a more positive role for the political activity within the state. That role was the promotion of

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Ciarán O’Kelly

philosophies of Locke, Voltaire and Rousseau. Article III states that ‘The principle of all sovereignty resides in the Nation. No body or individual may exercise any power other than that expressly emanating from the Nation’. Article III was derived specifically from Rousseau’s writing. 6 There are two ways of thinking about the nation. When the thinkers of the French revolution thought of sovereignty as being vested in

in Political concepts
Open Access (free)
Judith Squires

of the feminist writing on public and private has worked to undermine the stability of the dichotomy in that it has uncovered the historical contingency of any distinction between the public and the private, and has drawn attention to the ambiguities arising from the co-existence of several distinct articulations of the distinction within contemporary discourses. However, it is possible that this writing has become

in Political concepts
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Antinomies and enticements
Saurabh Dube

to re-enchant modernity through surrealistic representation and writing and ecstatic thought and theory. 6 Here, I consider it important to critically crystallize such consideration of the magic and/or the modern by placing the magical formations of money and markets as well as the fetish of state and sovereignty as part of the wider enchantments of modernity. I have noted that the enchantments extend

in Subjects of modernity
Mads Qvortrup

deification of selfishness, were what caused him to develop an alternative to the models which have prevailed since his own time. The poverty of Hobbesianism Nobody quite knows how it happened. No single philosopher, statesman or cleric can be blamed for the demise of the selfless ethics of the classics and of Christian religion. Yet one philosopher stands accused of putting the doctrine into writing; Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679). Hobbes – perhaps alongside Machiavelli – deserves (dis)credit for being the first major philosopher who sought to develop a moral philosophy on

in The political philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
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Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

‘Marxism’ was largely created by Engels’s writings after the death of his friend. Although German, Marx spent most of his life in exile in England, after having been identified by the authorities in his homeland, denounced as a threat to public order and forced to flee. He devoted himself full-time to writing, revolutionary agitation and political organisation. Marx’s ideas made a substantial impact on

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Perspectives on civilisation in Latin America
Jeremy C.A. Smith

world societies and indigenous civilisations sum up the landscape of contemporary civilisational analysis at the time of writing. Where civilisational analysis has stretched its latitude to examine African, new world and indigenous civilisations, only limited progress has been made. This chapter begins to address these lacunae with modest moves to apply the model of inter-​civilisational engagement outlined in Chapters 4 and 5 to modern 152 152 Debating civilisations perspectives in culture and the arts, politics, theology and political economy produced in Latin

in Debating civilisations
Hannah Arendt’s Jewish writings
Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

Jews, focusing exclusively on ‘the weakness of the Jewish stance in the world’ and writing in a ‘heartless … and malicious tone’ on matters that touched ‘the very quick of our life’. Scholem accused Arendt of lacking love for the Jewish people, Ahabath Israel in Hebrew, which he described as typical of ‘so many intellectuals who came from the German left’. 65 In response, Arendt re-affirmed her cosmopolitan leanings in a clever and honest way by

in Antisemitism and the left
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Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

Middle Ages. Some nations create states as expressions of political nationhood. For Hastings three elements were especially important in the creation of nationhood. War stimulated a sense of national identity and nationalism. The awareness of a wider linguistic sense of identity, rather than dialect, developed as the consequence of writing and the spread of printing. Finally, religion was especially important. The idea of a

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Armando Barrientos and Martin Powell

Clinton or Blair, is ‘Third Way’ if it says so. This focuses on self-proclamation rather than any ‘third party’ analysis. On the other hand, Giddens, 16 writing before the recent European elections, declared that ‘across the world left of centre governments are attempting to institute Third Way programmes’ – whether or not they favour the term itself. He admitted that in Europe

in The Third Way and beyond