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Open Access (free)
Rachel E. Hile

Introduction We know that all texts are indeterminate, incomplete … but some are extra-indeterminate, written by design to be extra-incomplete, to require, more than other texts, that the reader transfer meaning from other texts and from other semiotic fields altogether in order to correctly interpret the meaning. This book focuses on one such type of text, what I call “indirect satire,” by which I mean satirical writing that the reader cannot understand as satire without this intersemiotic transfer of meaning into the textual interpretation. Sometimes, in the

in Spenserian satire
Open Access (free)
Rachel E. Hile

“indirect satire” in their passages about satire. Rather, we see this type of writing described in their passages on pastoral, as already quoted in Chapter 2 (in pastoral, Puttenham writes, poets use “rude speeches to insinuate and glance at greater matters”; Art, 128; and according to Sidney, poets “under the pretty tales of wolves and sheep” sometimes “include the whole considerations of wrongdoing and patience”; Defence, 127). Certainly all of the writers discussed in this book had a clear understanding of how literary works could subversively speak to sensitive

in Spenserian satire
Open Access (free)
Speaking pictures?
Chloe Porter

research that demonstrates the interactivity of reading and spectatorship in this period, from the violence of early modern writing and reading practices, to the iconoclasm so often associated with England in this period. 5 Drama participates in this culture of interactive reception; prologues, epilogues and chorus speeches are littered with calls for audience members to contribute to the production of onstage

in Making and unmaking in early modern English drama
Open Access (free)
Theory and Spenserian practice
Rachel E. Hile

to begin the process of thinking analytically about indirect satire, an understudied and undertheorized form of satirical writing. Numerous scholars have described Spenser’s satirical methodology in ways that emphasize his efforts to balance goals of criticism with a strong impulse toward self-preservation: Lauren Silberman comments on the slipperiness of potential topical identifications in Mother Hubberds Tale: “As the poet holds up mirrors more than one to himself and his objects … . Spenser makes it virtually impossible to isolate a discrete political attack on

in Spenserian satire
Chloe Porter

important for my study is what iconoclasm may tell us about early modern spectatorship. Fabio Rambelli and Eric Reinders, writing on iconoclasm in East Asia, view the destruction of images as a process with transformative implications for the iconoclast as much as for the destroyed object: The destruction of objects produces new meanings

in Making and unmaking in early modern English drama
Rachel E. Hile

and early 1600s, and so I leave aside an in-depth analysis of satire in The Faerie Queene to focus, as my subtitle indicates, on a tradition. My overall goal is to create a fuller and more nuanced view of Spenser’s influence on satirical poetry in England in the 1590s and the impact of Spenser’s role in the literary system on poets writing satire. Even though Spenser has never been thought of as primarily a satirist, his over- MUP_Hile_SpenserSatire_Printer.indd 64 14/10/2016 15:35 Spenser and the English literary system 65 whelming importance to poetry in

in Spenserian satire
The ends of incompletion
Chloe Porter

envisaged as matter ‘under construction’ at the hands of spectators. To dislodge early modern concepts of finish and completion is to suggest that the constant reproduction of incompletion may be a condition of cultural production in this period. This much is often suggested in early modern studies. Writing on The Winter’s Tale , for example, Knapp concludes that ‘the openness attributed to the

in Making and unmaking in early modern English drama
Rachel E. Hile

4 Spenserian “entry codes” to  ­indirect  satire In his own satirical poetry, Edmund Spenser criticized indirectly, requiring readers to interpret clues carefully to access satirical meanings. For some readers, such as Joseph Hall and William Bedell, Spenser’s reputation as a decorous, conservative poet seemed to obscure awareness of him as also demonstrating an interest in or affinity for satirical writing, as discussed in Chapter 3. This chapter offers a corrective in the form of “case studies” of three poets who were quite sensitively attuned to the potential

in Spenserian satire
Rachel E. Hile

, with fox, ape, dolphin, and spider imagery used to refer to him (Bellany and McRae, “Early Stuart libels”). Middleton’s sly use of a fardel on a back to allude to Cecil’s crooked back is echoed by other anti-Cecil writers. Writing in 1592, Verstegan jests that Robert Cecil’s father should have helped him to a job as “writer vnder some clerck or officier of the courte,” because “he was fittest for such purpose, for that he caried his deske on his back” (Verstegan, A Declaration, 71). Twenty years later, following the Earl of Salisbury’s death in 1612, a libelist

in Spenserian satire
Open Access (free)
Behind the screen
Chloe Porter

that in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England people did not fear death as an ending of sorts, and that this did not impact at all on the literature of the period. Writing on ‘late style’ as a Romantic construct, Gordon McMullan notes that early modern attitudes to the ends of life were shaped by ‘downright negative’ portrayals of the elderly, as well as complex models of the seven ‘ages of

in Making and unmaking in early modern English drama