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religion in Turkey, what has been achieved in this field, and the almost religious zeal – “secular fundamentalism” – in which secularism has been applied in the country: The proclamation of the Republic in 1923 was followed by the abolition of the office of the caliphate in 1924. Other steps were taken in the course of the 1920s and early 1930s towards secularizing the Republic. These included the abolition of the Ministry of Religious Affairs and Pious Foundations, abolition of religious courts, proscription of male religious headgear, namely the

in Turkey: facing a new millennium

of workforce (2000) State form Republic, based on the constitution of 1958 establishing the Fifth French Republic. Following the liberation of France from German occupation in 1944 and a brief provisional government led by General Charles de Gaulle, the Fourth French Republic was founded in 1946. This regime, which proved unstable, was replaced in 1958 by the current one. Current head of state

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
From revolution to reform

2 The French Communist Party: from revolution to reform David S. Bell The left The PCF: from revolution to reform Introduction Under the Fourth and Fifth Republics the Parti Communiste Français (PCF) was one of the most important forces in the shaping of the party system. This status only began to diminish in the 1980s with the victory of François Mitterrand in the presidential and legislative elections of 1981. Although the Communist Party is a shadow of its former self, the shape of the party system and its behaviour over the post-war period is explicable

in The French party system

, personal interview, 2000, League of Women in the Bosnia and Herzegovina Federation). This has been the experience of women in many countries where women’s participation in political or military movements has not been reflected in the processes of institution building and where independent statehood has seen the marginalization of women in the political system (Jayawardena, 1989; Anthias and Yuval-Davis, 1990). Fifth, the processes and the dominant political discourses of transition also affect the shaping of national machineries. In the Czech Republic, for example, the

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?

along social and religious cleavages. Sometimes mediated by the institutional framework or anti-system cleavages – for instance the pragmatic alliance of the centre characteristic of the Third and Fourth Republics or the anti-Gaullist cleavage of the early Fifth Republic – the left–right dichotomy and its economic and cultural subdimensions truly emerged as the effective predictor of voting choice by the 1980s (Capdevielle et al., 1981, Bartolini 1984). Nuances of patrimoine and religious practice and the recently more complicated class structure aside, even the basic

in The French party system

nation-state until 1871, following the FrancoPrussian War. From that time to the present, there have been five clearly delineated time periods and six – or possibly seven – political systems on German territory. These are the Kaiserreich, also known as Hohenzollern Reich or Bismarck Reich, of 187–1918; the Weimar Republic of 1918–33; Hitler’s “Third Reich” of 1933–45; Allied occupation from 1945 to 1949; the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in the East from 1949 to 1989; chap 10 27/5/03 340 12:02 pm Page 340 The Länder and German federalism and the Federal

in The Länder and German federalism

addresses the particular political and economic conditions under which implementation is supposed to take place in the case studies of the book. The development of a Russian federation The Russian Federation, in the form it has taken since the disintegration of the Soviet Union, is the direct successor of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR). Some central traits of this structure, particularly those concerning the formal arrangements of centre–periphery relations, have been retained in the new federation. However, the substance of these relations has

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia
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Switzerland without considering the impact of the Holy Roman Empire, and, in Germany, the German Confederation after 1815, the Bismarck Reich after 1871, the Weimar Republic from 1919 to 1933, and the Third Reich from 1933 to 1945. Some would argue that the role of the Allies in the postwar years was an even more important factor in the re-emergence of federalism in Germany after 1949.2 It is also difficult to imagine federalism in the United States without the experience of the colonial era, the Revolutionary War, and the Articles of Confederation. A fourth reason is the

in The Länder and German federalism
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other. Whether or not the premises for such a hypothesis are accurate, the French case at first glance shows few signs of conforming to such a model. In 2002, the French party system seems to be demonstrating a fluidity, if not outright instability, equal to any period in the Fifth Republic’s history. The question this book aims to answer is: to what extent does this represent outright change and to what extent shifts within a stable structure? Looking at the supposed format of the system before the presidential elections of this year, the key elements were a plural

in The French party system

population which was more than three-fifths of the total. In addition, half of the Prussian votes were from the various provinces rather than from the central government of Prussia. 93 The Chancellor was appointed and dismissed by the popularly elected Reich President; however, the Chancellor and his ministers were also dependent on the support of a majority of the Reichstag. These provisions of the Weimar Constitution which are very similar to those of the French Fifth Republic today broke down by the end of the 1920s because of the inability of the polarized multi

in The Länder and German federalism